Rubberlike Elasticity: A Molecular Primer
Elastomers and rubberlike materials form a critical component in diverse applications that range from tyres to biomimetics and are used in chemical, biomedical, mechanical and electrical engineering. This updated and expanded edition provides an elementary introduction to the physical and molecular concepts governing elastic behaviour, with a particular focus on elastomers. The coverage of fundamental principles has been greatly extended and fully revised, with analogies to more familiar systems such as gases, producing an engaging approach to these phenomena. Dedicated chapters on novel uses of elastomers, covering bioelastomers, filled elastomers and liquid crystalline elastomers, illustrate the established and emerging applications at the forefront of physical science. With a list of experiments and demonstrations, problem sets and solutions, this is a self-contained introduction to the topic for graduate students, researchers and industrialists working in the applied fields of physics and chemistry, polymer science and engineering.
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Figure 47 Adsorption of chain segments onto ﬁller surfaces
Figure 105 Sketch of an interchain entanglement
atoms backbone bimodal distribution bimodal networks bioelastomers birefringence bonds chemical constant constrained junction constraints copolymers cross links crystalline curve cyclic decrease deﬁned deformation degree of swelling diluent distribution effects elastic free energy elastin elastomeric elongation end-linking entropy equation equilibrium Erman and Mark example experimental extension fe/f ﬁgure ﬁlled ﬁnal ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂexibility Flory ﬂuctuations function Gaussian glass transition temperature groups illustrated in Figure increase isotropic length liquid-crystalline materials measurements mechanical properties melting point modulus molecular weight molecules natural rubber network chains network structure non-Gaussian obtained PDMS PDMS networks phantom network model phase Polyisobutylene polymer polymer chains polymerization polysiloxane ratio reaction reinforcement repeat units rubberlike elasticity sample segmental orientation short chains shown in Figure side chains signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly silica solvent speciﬁc strain-induced crystallization stress–strain isotherms stretching studies sufﬁciently swollen techniques temperature thermodynamic thermoelastic Treloar typical ultimate properties undeformed uniaxial unimodal upturns values volume