Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Lee & Shepard, 1872 - Economics - 591 pages
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Contents

Why coimtries recover rapidly from a state of devastation 47
47
Demand for commodities is not demand for labour
49
Fallacy respecting Taxation
55
Fixed and Circulating Capital what
57
Increase of fixed capital when at the expense of circulating might be detrimental to the labourers
58
but this seldom if ever occurs
61
Land labour and capital are of different productiveness at diffe rent times and places
63
greater energy of labour
65
superior skill and knowledge
66
superiority of intelligence and trustworthiness in the commu nity generally
67
superior security
70
Combination of Labour a principal cause of superior productiveness
71
Effec ts of separation of employments analysed
73
Combination of labour between town and country
74
The higher degrees of the division of labour
75
Analysis of its advantages
77
Limitations of the division of labour
80
Of Production on a Large and Production on a Small Scale 1 Advantages of the large system of production in manufactures 2 Advantages and disad...
81
The aw of the increase of production depends on those of three elements Labour Capital and Land
96
The Law of Population
97
By what checks the increase of population is practically limited
98
Of the Law of the Increase of Production
108
Consequences of the foregoing Laws
117
BOOK II
123
Introductory remarks
129
The produce sometimes shared among three dns es
145
Of Slavery
151
Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry
171
Of Metayers
183
Of Cottiers
193
Iiish cottiers Bhonld be converted into peasant proprietors
199
Of Wages
207
The Remedies for Low Wages further
225
Of the Differences of Wages in different
233
Of Profits
246
Rent the effect of a natural monopoly
255
BOOK III
264
Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication
274
Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication
285
Summary of the Theory of Value
291
Value of Money an ambiguous expression
297
Influence of Currency on the Exchanges
381
Of the Distribution of the Precious Metals
382
Two contrary theories respecting the influence of bank issues
394
Of the Competition of different Countries
410
Exchange and Money make no difference in the law of wages
418
INFLUENCE OF THE PEOGEESS OF SOCIETY
421
First case population increasing capital stationary
430
Doctrine of Adam Smith on tho competition of capital
439
Abstraction of capital not necessarily a national loss
448
The theory of dependence and protection no longer applicable
455
BOOK V
479
Taxes falling on capital not necessarily objectionable
494
Direct taxes either on income or on expenditure
495
Of Taxes on Commodities
504
Taxes on contracts
517
Is it desirable to defray extraordinary public expenses by loans?
526
The same subject continued
536
Law of compulsory equal division of inheritances 640
541
Partnerships with limited liability Chartered Companies
545
Laws relating to insolvency
548
Of Interferences of Government grounded on Erroneous Theories 1 Doctrine of Protection to Native Industry
552
Usury Laws
559
Attempts to regulate the prices of commodities
561
Monopolies
562
Laws against Combination of Workmen
563
Restraints on opinion or on its publication
566
Governmental intervention distinguished into authoritative and unauthoritative
567
Objections to government interventionthe compulsory character of the intervention itself or of the levy of funds to support it
568
increase of the power and influence of government
570
superior efficiency of private agency owing to stronger interest in the work
571
importance of cultivating habits of collective action in the people
572
Laisserfaire the general rule
573
but liable to large exceptions Cases in which the consumer is an incompetent judge of the commodity Education
575
Case of persons exercising power over others Protection of chil dren and young persons of the lower animals Case of women not analogous
577
Case of contracts in perpetuity
579
hours of labour disposal of colonial lands
581
Case of acts done for the benefit of others than the persons con cerned Poor Laws
584
Colonization
585
other miscellaneous examples
589
Government intervention may be necessary in default of private agency in cases where private agency would bo more suitable
590

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 77 - facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many." Of these, the increase of dexterity of the individual workman is the most obvious and universal. It does not follow that because a thing has been done
Page 95 - undertaken by desire of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the Institute of France, have led to the conclusion that since the Revolution of 1789, the total produce of French agriculture has doubled ; profits and wages having both increased in about the same, and rent in a still greater ratio. M. de Lavergne,
Page 485 - believed, add so great an element of success to the undertaking as to increase rather than diminish the dividend to the shareholders." 6. The form of association, however, which if mankind continue to improve, must be expected in the end to predominate, is not that which can
Page 169 - years lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert." In his description of the country at the foot of the Western Pyrenees, he speaks no longer from surmise, but from knowledge. " Take* the road to Meneng, and come presently to a scene which was
Page 209 - then, depend mainly upon the demand and supply of labour; or as it is often expressed, on the proportion between population and capital. By population is here meant the number only of the labouring class, or rather of those who work for hire ; and by capital, only circulating capital, and not even the whole of that, but
Page 474 - representative of wealth ; or that numbers of individuals should pass over, every year, from the middle classes into a richer class, or from the class of the occupied rich to, that of the unoccupied. It is only in the backward countries of the world that increased production is still an important object : in those most advanced, what is economically needed
Page 503 - 3. Every tax ought to be levied at the time, or in the manner, in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it. A
Page 155 - mountains which protected it. Neither high-born nobleman, knight, nor esquire was here; but many of these humble sons of the hills had a consciousness that the land which they walked over and tilled had for more than five hundred years been possessed by men of their name and blood.
Page 473 - of ambition, the path to its attainment should be open to all, without favour or partiality. But the best state for human nature is that in which, while no one is poor, no one desires to be richer, nor has any reason to fear being thrust back, by the efforts of others to push themselves forward. 2. I cannot, therefore, regard the
Page 213 - among whom they are shared. The condition of the class can be bettered in no other way than by altering that proportion to their advantage : and every scheme for their benefit, which does not proceed on this as its foundation, is, for all permanent purposes, a delusion.

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