Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 1998 - Nature - 733 pages
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This book is the result of a commitment made to Professor Heinrich Walter (University of Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany) in 1978 by Dr. F. Ray Fosberg and myself. Heinrich Walter initiated a book series entitled Vegetationsmono graphien der einzelnen Grossriiume (Vegetation Monographs of the Major World Regions). Upon H. Walter's death in 1989, Professor Siegmar-W. Breckle (Uni versity of Bielefeld) continued as editor of this monograph series. Professor Wal ter's concept included nine world regions: Vol. I, North and Central America; Vol. II, South America; Vol. III, Africa; Vol. IV, Australia; Vol. V, Tropical Asia; Vol. VI, East Asia; Vol. VII, Eastern Europe with North and Central Asia; Vol. VIII, Europe exclusive of Eastern Europe; and Vol. IX, the Pacific Islands. Vols. I, II, III, IV, and VII have since been published by Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. Vol. VIII will be published concurrently as the last volume (in German) through Fischer Verlag. Vol. IX, this volume, is the second book in English (after Vol. IV) and the first to be published by Springer-Verlag. Vol. VI is currently in prepa ration, and Vol. V is still in the planning stage. In 1979 Dr. Fosberg and I began to make tentative outlines for this book. His Pacific island work began in 1935, when he received his M.Sc. degree in botany from the University of Hawaii, based on work on the genus Gouldia (Rubiaceae ).
  

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Contents

Introduction The Book Concept 1 Focus Approach and Objectives
1
2 Vegetation Treatment in a Landscape Perspective
2
3 Floristic and Vegetational Plant Geography
3
1 Island Area Included
4
2 Phytogeographic Questions
7
3 Island Subregions
8
1 Origin of the Pacific Ocean
11
2 Plate Tectonics and the Andesite Line
12
6 Guam
269
1 Regional Geography
275
2 The Vegetation in General
276
3 The Belau Islands Palau
277
4 Yap and Fais a Introduction
284
5 Chuuk AlmostAtoll
286
6 Pohnpei Ponape a Introduction
288
7 Kosrae Kusaie
291

3 Composite and Shield Volcanoes
14
4 Types of Islands
16
5 Continental Fragments and Island Arcs
17
1 Australia New Zealand and New Caledonia
19
2 New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands
21
4 Vanuatu and Fiji
22
5 Micronesia Polynesia and the Eastern Pacific
23
Climate and Vegetation Patterns
24
2 Rainfall Zones
26
3 Seasonality
28
4 Tropical Cyclones
30
5 El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
31
6 PacificWide Biomes
34
Conclusions
37
Western Melanesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography
39
3 Climate Diagrams
41
4 Regional Climate
44
Introduction
45
2 Soil Substrates
46
Regional Vegetation Types
49
l Coastal Strand Vegetation
50
3 Freshwater Swamp Forests and Herbaceous Wetlands
51
4 Forest on Limestone
53
6 Montane Rain Forest
54
7 Other Vegetation Types
55
Introduction
57
2 Soil Substrates
58
1 Coastal Strand Vegetation
59
4 Floodplain Forest
60
6 Forest on Ancient Limestone
61
9 Vegetation on Recent Volcanic Surfaces
62
Summary of Vegetation Patterns
63
Introduction
65
1 Climate and Weather Disturbances
66
2 Topography
67
4 Human Population
68
5 Phytogeographic Aspects
69
Regional Vegetation Types
70
3 Freshwater Swamp Forests and Herbaceous Wetland Vegetation
71
4 Lowland Rain Forest on WellDrained Soil
72
5 LowDiversity Rain Forests
74
6 Seasonally Dry Forest and Grassland
75
7 Montane Rain Forest
77
8 Anthropogenically Modified Vegetation
78
Vegetation of the Outer Islands
79
2 Rennell
81
Conclusions
83
Eastern Melanesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography
84
2 Regional Geology
86
Treatment of the Vegetation
88
The Santa Cruz Islands
89
Kauri Dynamics in the Santa CruzIslands
90
Vanuatu Introduction
93
1 Climate
94
3 Soils
95
Regional Vegetation Types
97
1 Lowland Rain Forest
98
2 Montane Cloud Forest and Related Vegetation
101
4 Vegetation on New Volcanic Surfaces
103
6 Secondary and Cultivated Woody Vegetation
104
Vegetation of the Northern Outlier and Central Islands
105
2 Banks Islands
106
Regeneration Dynamics of the Kauri Forests of South Vanuatu
107
Introduction
108
1 Climate
109
2 Geology
111
3 Origin of the Flora
112
Principal Vegetation Types
113
1 Lowland Rain Forest
114
2 Upland Rain Forest
119
3 Cloud Forest
121
4 Dry Forest
122
5 Talasiqa Vegetation
123
6 Freshwater Wetland Vegetation
127
7 Mangrove Forest and Scrub
129
8 Coastal Strand Vegetation
130
Vegetation on Smaller Islands
132
2 Kabara
135
New Caledonia Introduction
136
1 Climate
137
2 Geological Origin
139
3 Phytogeographic Relationships
142
Principal Vegetation Types
144
1 Lowland Mesic Rain Forest
145
2 Montane Rain and Cloud Forest
147
3 Forest on Limestone
149
5 Savanna
150
6 Maquis Scrub Vegetation a General
151
7 Lowland Swamp Vegetation
156
8 Mangrove and Strand Vegetation including Littoral Forest
157
9 Modified Vegetation
158
Conclusions
161
The Subtropical Islands in the New Zealand Region Introduction 1 Regional Overview
162
1 Geography
165
3 Geology
167
4 Soils
168
6 Phytogeographic Relationships
169
1 Lowland Subtropical Rain Forest
170
2 Submontane Rain Forest
173
4 Lowland Swamp Forest Mangrove and Seagrass Vegetation
174
6 Inland Scrub and Herbland
176
8 Shoreline and Beach Vegetation
177
9 Disturbed Vegetation
178
l0 Summary of Vegetation Patterns
179
11 Canopy Dieback
181
1 Geography
182
4 Soils
184
6 Vegetation
185
7 Distribution Patterns
187
8 Phytogeographic Relationships
191
9 Nepean and Philip Islands
192
10 Araucaria Decline and Dieback
193
1 Geography Climate and Geology
194
Conclusions
197
Micronesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography and Climate
199
2 Substrates and SoilParent Materials a Three Main Types of Substrates
201
3 Treatment of Vegetation
204
1 Mangrove Vegetation
205
2 Strand Vegetation a Introduction
207
3 Vegetation on Coral Atolls and Low Coral Islands
211
4 Vegetation on Raised Coral or Elevated Limestone a Primary Vegetation
216
5 Vegetation on Coastal Plains Including Swamp Forest
220
6 Lowland Rain Forest a Primary Forest
223
7 Montane Rain Forest and Cloud Forest
225
8 Dwarf Vegetation on Open Crests
227
9 Vegetation on Rough Lava Flows
228
1 The Bonin Ogasawara Islands a Geography and Floristics
234
2 The Volcano Kazan Islands
238
Marcus Island
240
Introduction
241
2 Human Influences on the Vegetation
242
3 Subregional Differences
243
1 Uracas Farallon de Pajaros
244
3 Asuncion Assongsong
245
4 Agrihan Agrigan
247
5 Pagan
248
6 Alamagan
250
7 Guguan
251
9 Anatahan
252
The Southern Marianas
254
i Farallon de Medinilla
255
2 Saipan
256
3 Tinian
259
4 Aguiguan Aguijan
264
5 Rota
265
8 The Atolls of the Caroline Islands
292
Nauru and Banaba
293
Wake Island
296
1 Introduction
297
2 Regional Vegetation
298
3 Taongi Atoll
303
4 Bikar Atoll
305
1 Geography and Flora
306
2 Climate and Substrate
307
3 Vegetation
308
1 A Brief Review
309
What Are The Determinants?
310
Central Polynesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography
314
2 Regional Climate
315
1 Regional Overview
317
2 Johnston Island
318
4 The Line Islands
323
Howland Baker Jarvis Maiden and Starbuck
327
6 Central Pacific MoistZone Atolls
328
Conclusions
336
Western Polynesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography and Geology
341
2 Regional Climate
342
3 Treatment of Vegetation
344
Tonga Introduction
345
Vegetation
347
2 Beach Vegetation
348
6 Fern and Grassland
349
3 Coastal Marsh
350
1 Secondary or Cultivated Vegetation
351
1 Introduction
352
3 Reanalysis of Euas Forest Communities
355
Western Tier of Young Volcanic Islands
357
2 Late
358
Introduction
360
Vegetation
361
L Littoral Vegetation
362
2 Wetland Vegetation
363
3 Lowland Rain Forest
364
4 Montane Rain Forest
368
6 Vegetation on Recent Volcanic Surfaces
372
Forest Dynamics in Samoa
375
Rotuma
376
Home Hoorn Horn or Wallis Islands Introduction
378
2 Psammophilous Littoral Vegetation
379
4 Dense Evergreen Forest
380
5 Montane Rain and Cloud Forest
381
Vegetation
382
3 Fernland
383
Eastern Polynesia Introduction 1 Regional Geography and Geology
385
2 Regional Climate
387
The Cook Islands
390
Rarotonga
392
Aitutaki
394
Mitiaro Atiu Mauke and Mangaia
395
Palmerston Manuae and Takutea Islands
400
Vegetation
401
Marotiri Rocks
402
Raivavae
404
Tubuai
405
Rurutu
406
The Society Islands Introduction
407
2 Geology and Hydrology
409
2 Original Vegetation
410
3 Polynesian Influences
411
4 European Influences
412
Vegetation Patterns
413
2 Tahiti
414
3 Moorea
418
4 Maiao TubuaiManu
420
6 Raiatea
422
7 Tahaa
426
8 Bora Bora
428
9 Maupiti
429
The French System of Classification
430
Conclusions
431
Introduction
433
Tuamotu Atolls
434
Makatea Island
437
The Gambler Islands Mangareva
438
Pitcairn Island
440
Oeno Atoll
441
Ducie Atoll
443
Sala y Gomez Island
444
2 Climate
446
1 Xerotropical Lowland Zone
447
2 Pluviotropical and Transition Zones
448
4 Dry Seaward Slope Vegetation
449
6 Cultivated Forest Remnants
451
Vegetation of the Individual Marquesan Islands
452
Tahuata Island
453
Mohotani Island
454
Ua Pou Island
456
Motu Iti Fatuiti
457
Hatutaa Island
458
Summary and Conclusions
459
Northern Polynesia The Hawaiian Islands Introduction 1 Geography
461
2 Climate
464
3 Climatic Disturbances
466
4 Island Chronosequence and Geomorphology
469
5 Soil Substrates
472
7 Treatment of Vegetation
477
Coastal Strand Marsh Mangrove and Cliff Vegetation Azonal Not Mapped
478
2 Lowland Dry Forest Savanna Scrub and Grassland a Native Dryland Forest
486
3 Lowland to Upper Montane Seasonal Forests
502
4 Lowland to Upper Montane Rain Forest Including Femlands a Lowland Rain Forest
511
5 Montane Cloud Forests a The Cloud Forest Concept
521
6 Montane Bogs
527
7 HighAltitude Vegetation
532
8 Deserts and Vegetation on New Volcanic Surfaces
541
9 Cultivated Vegetation
547
Vegetation of the Smaller Hawaiian Islands
555
1 The Dry VolcanicSubstrate Islands
556
2 The Hawaiian Atolls and Coral Reef Islands
566
Dynamics in the Hawaiian Vegetation
572
1 Vegetation Dynamics with Rain Forest Dieback a Naturally Induced Process
573
2 Vegetation Dynamics with Alien Species a HumanInduced Process
575
The Oceanic Islands in the Eastern Pacific Introduction
578
2 San Benedicto
581
4 Roca Partida
583
1 Cocos Island
584
2 Malpelo Island
585
1 Introduction
587
2 Climate
589
3 Vegetation
590
4 Principal Vegetation Zones
591
5 Bogs Lava Flow Vegetation and Other Communities
595
6 Summary of Spatial Vegetation Pattems
596
7 Vegetation Dynamics in the Moist Zone
600
1 Introduction
604
3 San Felix
607
1 Introduction
609
2 Robinson Crusoe Island Masatierra
611
3 Santa Clara Island
614
5 Vegetation Summary and Profile
616
Summary and Conclusions
618
The Future of Island Vegetation 1 Introduction
620
2 The Human Factor
621
3 Fosbergs Entropy Concept
627
4 The Hawaii IBP Concept
628
5 Conceptual Aspects Arising from This Book
630
6 Conclusion
640
References
642
Checklist of Plant Names
676
Subject Index
713
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

F. Raymond Fosberg was botanist at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC.

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