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A.G. MacDiarmid A.J. Heeger anions atoms band band gap behaviour bipolaron calculated carriers CH)X charged solitons Chem chemical concentration conducting polymers conjugated polymers conjugated segments conjugation length Cryst crystals decrease density dopant doping doping level effect electrical conductivity electrochemical electrolyte electronic emeraldine energy excitation experimental frequency function Hamiltonian Heeger increase indicate intensity interaction iodine Kuzmany laser lattice Lett linewidth measurements molecular molecules monomer nonlinear optical nonradiative observed obtained optical absorption oriented oxidation PANI parameters peak phonon photocurrent photoexcitation photogenerated photoinduced Phys plasmon polarization polaron poly polyacetylene polyaniline polymerization polypyrrole polypyrrole films polythiophene potential properties protonated pyrrole recombination redox reduced relaxation resonance room temperature S/cm samples shown in Fig soliton soliton pair solution sp3 defects spectroscopy spectrum spin structure Synth Synthetic Metals temperature dependence thermal thermopower thiophene transition undoped Vardeny vibrational