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100 kilogrammes according Adam Smith admit agriculture amount applied arrondissement Assembly assessment Bonamy Price burden cent centimes CHAPTER circulating capital citizens classes commodities consequently consumed contrary cost definition demand diminish duties economists effect employed established existing expenses fall favour figures fisc fiscal fixed capital fortune francs give hectares hectolitres impede increase indirect taxes individual industry interest J. B. Say land tax legislator less levied liberty of labour Magne manufacturer matter means milliards millions nation natural agents never objection octroi paid Paris Political Economy portion possess precisely principle production profit progress progressive tax proportion proportionality question reform registration result ruin salt single tax sole tax Stamp Stuart Mill sugar suppression Tallon tax on capital tax on income tax on revenue tax-payer taxation taxes on consumption Thiers Third Estate tion trade transformed utility wants wealth wine Wolowski
Page 144 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Page 144 - The certainty of what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, a matter of so great importance, that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears, I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not near so great an evil as a very small degree of uncertainty.
Page 334 - What capital does for production, is to afford the shelter, protection, tools and materials which the work requires, and to feed and otherwise maintain the labourers during the process.
Page 65 - The acquisition of such talents by the maintenance of the acquirer during his education, study, or apprenticeship, always costs a real expense, which is a capital fixed and realized, as it were, in his person. Those talents, as they make a part of his fortune, so do they likewise of that of the society to which he belongs. The improved dexterity of a workman may be considered in the same light as a machine or instrument of trade which facilitates and abridges labour, and which, though it costs a...
Page 169 - Taxes on the sale of land fall altogether upon the seller. The seller is almost always under the necessity of selling, and must, therefore, take such a price as he can get. The buyer is scarce ever under the necessity of buying, and will, therefore, only give such a price as he likes. He considers what the land will cost him in tax and price together. The more he is obliged to pay in the way of tax, the less he will be disposed to give in the way of price. Such taxes, therefore, fall almost always...
Page 64 - It consists chiefly of the four following articles: First, of all useful machines and instruments of trade which facilitate and abridge labour: Secondly, of all those profitable buildings which are the means of procuring a revenue, not only to their proprietor who lets them for a rent, but to the person who possesses...
Page 101 - That part of his capital which a dealer is obliged to keep by him unemployed and in ready money, for answering occasional demands...
Page 68 - Of the capital engaged in the production of any commodity, there is a part which, after being once used, exists no longer as capital; is no longer capable of rendering service to production.
Page 144 - ... revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state. The expense of government to the individuals of a great nation is like the expense of management to the joint tenants of a great estate, who are all obliged to contribute in proportion to their respective interests in the estate. In the observation or neglect of this maxim consists what is called the equality or inequality of taxation.