Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 10, 2007 - Science - 360 pages
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Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system.
  

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Contents

Global Ecology Networks and Research Synthesis
1
12 Carbon and Water Cycles in the 21st Century
2
13 Changing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
3
15 Managing Ecosystem Services
4
References
5
Carbon and Water Cycles in the 21st Century
6
CO2 Fertilization When Where How Much?
7
22 LongTerm Biomass Responses and Carbon Pools
10
1521 Plant Geography
176
1523 Vegetation Dynamics
177
1525 Human Intervention
178
1532 Net Primary Production
179
1534 Hydrology
180
154 Evaluating DGVMS
181
1544 Runoff
182
1553 The Pinatubo Effect
183

Biomass Responses at Elevated CO2
11
223 Scaling from Growth to Carbon Pools
13
232 Consequences for Herbivory Decomposition and Plant Nutrition
14
25 Stress Resistance under Elevated CO2
16
27 Summary and Conclusions
17
References
18
Ecosystem Responses to Warming and Interacting Global Change Factors
23
321 The GCTENEWS Synthesis
24
322 The ITEX Synthesis
25
323 The Harvard Forest Soil Warming Experiment
26
332 Growth Responses
27
333 HigherOrder Responses
28
342 Net Primary Productivity
29
344 JRGCE Summary
30
352 Comparing Forest and Grassland with GDAY
32
36 Summary and Conclusions
33
Acknowledgments
34
Insights from Stable Isotopes on the Role of Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Global Carbon Cycle
37
43 The Global Carbon Cycle
40
44 Future Directions
42
References
43
Effects of Urban LandUse Change on Biogeochemical Cycles
45
52 Urban LandUse Change
46
53 Urban Environmental Factors
47
532 Atmospheric and Soil Pollution
49
54 Disturbance and Management Effects
50
542 Management Effort
51
55 Effects of Built Environment
52
56 Assessing Biogeochemical Effects the Importance of Scale
54
57 Summary and Conclusions
55
Acknowledgments
56
Saturation of the Terrestrial Carbon Sink
59
63 Dynamics of Processes that Contribute to Carbon Sink Saturation
60
642 Processes Driven by Climate Change
64
643 Processes Driven by LandUse Change and Land Management
66
65 Integration and Model Predictions
71
66 Summary and Conclusions
73
Acknowledgments
74
Changing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
79
Functional Diversity at the Crossroads between Ecosystem Functioning and Environmental Filters
80
72 Environmental Filters Affect FD
82
732 The Role of Interactions
87
74 Summary and Conclusions
89
References
90
Linking Plant Invasions to Global Environmental Change
93
83 Plant Invasions and Climatic Change
95
84 Plant Invasions and Land Eutrophication
96
85 Plant Invasions and Changes in Land UseCover
97
86 Multiple Interactions
98
87 Summary and Conclusions
99
Plant Biodiversity and Responses to Elevated Carbon Dioxide
103
92 Temporal Variation and Response to Elevated CO2
105
93 Biodiversity Loss and Response to Elevated CO2
107
932 Ecosystem C Fluxes in a SpeciesPoor World
108
94 Summary and Conclusions
110
References
111
Predicting the Ecosystem Consequences of Biodiversity Loss the Biomerge Framework
113
1012 Linking Change in Biodiversity with Change in Ecosystem Functioning
114
1014 What We Have Learned about the Relationship between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
115
102 The BioMERGE Framework
117
1023 The BioMERGE Research Implementation SubFramework
119
Towards a Large Scale BEF
122
Acknowledgments
123
Landscapes under Changing Disturbance Regimes
127
Plant Species Migration as a Key Uncertainty in Predicting Future Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems Progress and Challenges
128
112 Will Migration Be Necessary for Species Persistence?
130
1121 VegetationType Models
131
1122 SpeciesBased Models
132
113 Measurements and Models of Migration Rates
133
114 Linking Migration and Niche Based Models
134
115 Summary and Conclusions
135
Understanding Global Fire Dynamics by Classifying and Comparing Spatial Models of Vegetation and Fire
139
122 Background
140
124 Model Comparison
141
1242 The Comparison Design
143
125 Results and Discussion
144
1252 Model Comparison
145
Acknowledgments
146
Plant Functional Types Are We Getting Any Closer to the Holy Grail?
149
133 Traits and Environmental Gradients
152
1333 Projecting Changes in Plant Functional Traits in Response to Global Change
154
from Response Traits to Community Assembly
155
from Response Traits to Effect Traits
156
136 So Are We Getting Closer to the Holy Grail? Scaling beyond Ecosystems
157
the Contribution of PaleoData
158
137 Summary and Conclusions
159
Spatial Nonlinearities Cascading Effects in the Earth System
165
142 Conceptual Framework
166
1432 Wildfire
168
1433 Invasive Species and Desertification
171
144 Forecasting Spatial Nonlinearities and Catastrophic Events
172
145 Summary and Conclusions
173
Dynamic Global Vegetation Modeling Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to LargeScale Environmental Change
175
1556 Effects of LandUse Change on the Carbon Cycle
185
1564 Plant Dispersal and Migration
186
1569 Biogenic Emissions of Trace Gases and Aerosol Precursors
187
Managing Ecosystem Services
193
Wheat Production Systems and Global Climate Change
194
162 Global Atmospheric Change Climate and Yields
197
163 Impacts on Wheat Productivity
199
164 Addressing the Yield Gap
200
166 The RiceWheat System
201
167 The Effect of Climate Change on the RiceWheat System
202
169 Carbon Dioxide
203
1611 Nitrous Oxide
204
1613 Summary and Conclusions
207
References
208
Pests Under Global Change Meeting Your Future Landlords?
211
1722 Monitoring Benchmarks and Indicators for Measuring Impacts
212
1723 Estimating Impacts
213
173 Impacts
216
1732 Land Use Land Cover and Biodiversity
219
174 Adaptation
220
1743 Adaptation of Control Measures in Response to Global Change
221
175 Vulnerability
222
References
223
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in Agricultural Soils
227
182 What Is Meant by GHG Mitigation Potential?
229
183 Regional Case Studies
230
1832 Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential in the US
231
184 Carbon Sequestration in the Future
232
186 Future Challenges
233
187 Summary and Conclusions
234
References
235
Carbon and Water Tradeoffs in Conversions to Forests and Shrublands
236
Evapotranspiration and Water Yield
238
Potential Atmospheric Feedbacks
239
193 Woody Encroachment and Agriculture
240
Grassland Vs Woodland
241
1933 Uncertainties in Water and Carbon Balances with Woody Plant Encroachment
242
194 Summary and Conclusions
243
References
244
Natural and Human Dimensions of Land Degradation in Drylands Causes and Consequences
247
2022 Defining Land Degradation and Desertification
248
2023 What Drives Land Degradation and Desertification?
249
2025 Consequences of Desertification
250
2026 Scale and Hierarchy
251
203 Joint GCTELUCC Desertification Initiative
252
2032 Initiatives to Test the Dahlem Desertification Paradigm
253
204 Management of Desertified Drylands
254
205 Summary and Conclusions
255
Regions under Stress
258
Southeast Asian Fire Regimes and Land Development Policy
259
212 Underlying Causes of Land Fires
262
2123 Land Management Practices
263
2124 Property Rights and Conflicts
265
2132 Regional Haze Episodes
266
2134 Interactions with Climate Variability and Change
267
215 Informed DecisionMaking and Better Governance
268
2152 Regional Cooperation
269
Acknowledgments
270
Global Change Impacts on Agroecosystems of Eastern China
273
222 Chinese Terrestrial Transects
274
223 Physiological and Plant Responses to Multiple Global Change Forcing
275
224 Productivity and Its Responses to Global Change
276
225 Carbon Budget and Its Responses to Global Change
278
226 Summary and Conclusions
282
Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia Scaling up from Shoot Module to Watershed
284
2321 Competition among Individual Plants in EvenAged Monospecific Stands at Elevated CO2
286
2322 ShootModuleBased Simulator As a Tool of Individual Tree Response
288
2323 Modeling the Shift of Forest Zonation
289
2331 Carbon Exchange between AtmosphereForestStream Boundaries
290
2333 Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon at the Interface of Stream and Lake Ecosystems
291
234 Carbon Budget and Functions of the Lake Biwa Ecosystem
292
2342 Metabolism in the Lake Sediments
293
235 Summary and Conclusions
294
Responses of High Latitude Ecosystems to Global Change Potential Consequences for the Climate System
297
243 Responses of Radiatively Active Gases
300
2433 Responses of CH4 Exchange to Climatic Change
302
2434 Responses to Changes in Disturbance and Land Cover
303
244 Responses of Water and Energy Exchange
304
245 Delivery of Freshwater to the Arctic Ocean
305
References
306
Future Directions the Global Land Project
311
The Future Research Challenge the Global Land Project
313
252 Research Objectives
314
253 Emergent Concepts
315
2532 Ecosystem Services
316
254 Research Framework
317
Consequences of LandSystem Change
318
255 Implementation Strategy
319
256 Summary and Conclusions
320
References
321
Index
323
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