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absence of salt activity coefficient activity of counter addition of salt additivity law alkali apparent charge bound counter ions chain Chapter charge density charged groups chemical potential coefficient of counter coil conformation concentration of counter concentration of free concentration of macroions copolymer counter ion condensation critical value cylindrical macroion decreases degree of dissociation degree of neutralization density Q derived dielectric constant dielectric dispersion dielectric increment electric free energy entropy equilibrium experimental extensive force fluctuation free counter ions free energy free volume hydrogen ions increase interaction ionized groups kinds of counter macromolecules monomers monovalent number of charged number of counter number of free osmotic coefficient osmotic pressure Poisson-Boltzmann equation polyacids polyacrylic acid polyelectrolytes polyvalent counter ions potential valley proportional radius random coil ratio refractive index region relation result rodlike macroions rods salt concentration salt solution shown in Fig simple salt small ions sodium ions spherical macroion total number valence