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able-bodied paupers afford amount argument better Bill bog or mountain bog-land capital and labour Celt Channel Islands character circumstances claim colonization compensation cost cottier crops cultivated desirable Devon Commission discontent doubt drainage drains effect employment England equal equitable estates evicted existing expense farm farm system farmer Galway give Government home soils idle industry investment Irish landlords island justice Kilcullen labour-market Lancashire land in Ireland landed property Landlord and Tenant lative leases legislation Legislature less Lord Lord Clarendon's maintaining marl means measure ment millions of acres moss moss land object occupiers owner Parliament peat soils perhaps permanent improvements poor-law population practice present principle produce profit proposal proprietor purchase purpose question quit-rent reclaimed remedy rent result shew STANFORD UNIVERSITY subsoiling surplus surplus labour tenant-right tenantry tillage tion Tipperary tract Tuscany Ulster vast waste land wealth workhouse
Page 76 - sacredness of property " is talked of, it should always be remembered, that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a question of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.
Page 27 - The profit of reclaiming waste land,' says the Digest of Evidence to Lord Devon's Commission, ' will be best understood from a practice not uncommon in Ireland, to which farmers sometimes resort. This consists in giving the use of a small portion of it to a poor cottier or herdsman for the first three crops, after which this improved portion is given up to the farmer, and a fresh piece of the waste land is taken on the same terms by the cottier.
Page 76 - ... usually consists in not leaving even this pittance, but turning out the people to beggary if not to starvation. When landed property has placed itself upon this footing it ceases to be defensible, and the time has come for making some new arrangement of the matter.
Page 26 - ... rival. A capitalist must have a certain return for the money he lays out, but the poor man expends nothing but his own superabundant labour, which would be valueless if not so employed, so that his returns, however small, are all clear profit.
Page 76 - The community has too much at stake in the proper cultivation of the land and in the conditions annexed to the occupancy of it, to leave these things to the discretion of a class of persons called landlords, when they have shown themselves unfit for the trust.
Page 27 - ... This consists in giving the use of a small portion of it to a poor cottier or herdsman for the first three crops, after which this improved portion is given up to the farmer, and a fresh piece of the waste land is taken on the same terms by the cottier." Well may the compiler say, " Here we have the example of the very poorest class in Ireland obtaining a livelihood by the cultivation of waste land under the most discouraging and the least remunerative circumstances that can well be imagined.
Page 26 - ... but the poor man expends nothing but his own superabundant labour, which would be valueless if not so employed; so that his returns, however small, are all clear profit. No man in his senses would ever have thought of wasting money upon the original sand of the Pays de Waes; but the hard-working boors who settled there two hundred years ago, without any other stock than their industry, contrived to enrich both themselves and the land, and indeed to make the latter the richest in Europe.
Page 26 - may perhaps be thought to require a good deal of capital; but capital is principally useful for its command of labour, and the Irish peasantry have quite labour enough at their own disposal. Their misfortune is that they have so much. Their labour would not be worse applied because they worked for themselves instead of for a paymaster. So far is large capital from being indispensable for the cultivation of barren tracts, that schemes of this kind, which could only bring loss to a real speculator,...
Page 75 - ... would have been driven from the Alps to make room for flocks of sheep. But whatever might have been in its origin the right of the counts, the legislation of the whole of continental Europe has not ceased guaranteeing and ameliorating the condition of the feudatories, of the vassals, of the serfs, strengthening the independence of the peasant, covering him with the buckler of prescription, changing his customs into rights, sheltering him from the exactions of his lord, and by degrees raising...