Low-Dielectric Constant Materials V:
John Hummel, Kazuhiko Endo, Wei William Lee, Michael Mills, Shi-Qing Wang
Cambridge University Press, Jan 12, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 306 pages
Interest in developing low-dielectric constant materials is driven by requirements from the microelectronics sector to improve performance in interconnections by reducing parasitic capacitance and cross talk. The continuing increase in density of semiconductor devices is becoming limited by the dielectric properties of the insulator which threatens to slow the rate of productivity. The requirement for dielectric constant is rapidly approaching an e value of 2.0, with continued improvement sought even below this level to maintain this progression, commonly known as Moore's Law. Synthetic methods of obtaining materials in this range are addressed in this book. The materials solution to the interconnect problem - changing the insulator to lower the dielectric constant from 4.0, the e of silicon dioxide - introduces a host of reliability concerns, as well as changes to the process of manufacturing semiconductor devices. Topics include: porous films - organic and inorganic; porous films - organic/low-k integration; low-k integration; low-k/advanced interconnect; low-dielectric constant materials and applications in microelectronics and low-k film property/integration.
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Wave Polymerization During Vapor Deposition of Porous
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1999 Materials Research a-C:F film absorption adhesion promoter adsorbate adsorption annealing as-deposited atoms barrier capacitance capacitors carbon chemical cured films curing temperature damascene debond decrease deposition rate device dielectric constant diffusion electrical Electron ellipsometry etching fabricated film expansion film thickness films deposited FLAC fluorine FOx films FTIR increase integration interface layer leakage current low dielectric constant low-k low-k materials low-K polymer Materials Research Society measured metal modulus moisture MSSQ nitride nitrogen oxide peak PECVD plasma treatment polarization polyimide polymer polymerization pore porogen porosity porous film PPSZ Proc ratio reduced refractive index resistance sample Semiconductor shown in Figure shows Si-H bonds Si-O silica silicon silicon dioxide silsesquioxane SiO:F SiO2 SiOF films spectra spin coating sputtering stress substrate surface Symp Technology TEOS thermal conductivity thermal stability thin films ULSI voltage wafer xerogel xerogel films