UN Peacekeeping in Action: The Namibian Experience

Front Cover
Nova Publishers, Jan 1, 1999 - Political Science - 272 pages
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The settlement of Namibia's long running conflict remains one of the major successes of the United Nations. Over the course of one year, UN peacekeepers assisted the people of Namibia to gain their independence after years of oppressive South African rule. This book provides an in depth study of the conditions contributing to the UN's success in Namibia and what these reveal about peacekeeping and peace enforcing in other countries.
  

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Contents

A Shortlived Success
1
Why Focus nn Namibia
2
The Objectives of UNTAG
3
Overview
4
Developing a New Understanding of UN Peacekeeping
7
The Formation of the United Nations and the Concept of Collective Security
8
The Development of Peacekeeping and its Essential Characteristics
9
The Evolution and Scope of UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Cold War Period
12
The Role of the Special Representatives Office in Preventing Violence and Intimidation
121
The Mandate
122
UNTAG and Conflict Resolution
123
Communication with Political Parties
125
Negotiations between UNTAG and the Administrator General
136
Communicating with the Media
141
Discussion
144
Conclusion
146

Factors Resulting in Success or Failure
18
The Need for Reform
20
Developing a Theoretical Framework for the UNTAG Operation
22
Conclusion
33
A History of Occupation
35
The German Occupation
36
South Africa and the Sacred Trust of Civilisation
37
Enter the United Nations
38
The Conflict in Angola
39
Namibia in the 1970s
40
The Western Five and the Development of Resolution 435
41
South African Rejection of Resolution 435
43
A Deal is Struck
44
Relationship Between the Negotiations and UNTAG
54
Conclusion
55
Resolution 435 and UNTAG
57
Changes to the Mandate
60
Problems with the Mandate
63
Key Components of UNTAG
65
UNTAG Command
71
UNTAG Planning
72
Training
74
Logistics and Procurement
75
Conclusion
76
Violence and Intimidation in Namibia
77
The Militarisation of Namibia
78
Other Covert Operations
84
Other Sources of Intimidation
85
Conclusion
86
The Military Component of UNTAG
87
The UN Mandate for the Military Component
88
UNTAGs Response
94
The Continuing Crisis
100
The Crisis Ends
102
SWAPOs Position and the Settlement Plan
103
Early Indications of Trouble
106
Discussion
108
Other Duties of the Military Component
114
Conclusion
120
The UN Police in Namibia
147
UNTAG Police Roles and Limitations
148
Performance of CIVPOL
150
Discussion
159
Conclusion
163
Creating the Conditions for Free and Fair Elections
165
The Mandate
166
Repeal of Discriminatory Legislation and the General Amnesty
167
The Repatriation Program
170
Release of Political Prisoners
174
Were Conditions for Free and Fair Elections Created?
179
Conclusion
180
The Electoral Process and Independence
181
The Mandate of the Electoral Process
182
Voter Registration
183
The Electoral Laws
186
Registration of Political Parties
190
Voter Education and Campaigning
191
The Elections
198
To Independence
201
The UNs Performance
202
Conclusion
204
Impacts and Perceptions
207
Economic Impacts
212
Understanding of the Local Population
214
Perceptions of Success
215
Discussion
216
Conclusion
217
The Effectiveness of UNTAG
219
UNTAGs Success and the Key Determinants
220
How UNTAG Could have been Improved
225
UN Peacekeeping The Implications of UNTAG
236
Conclusion
240
Appendix 1 List of Interviews
243
Appendix 2 Resolution 435
249
Bibliography
255
United Nations Documents
264
Index
267
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