Mechanics of Fretting Fatigue
Failures of many mechanical components in service result from fatigue. The cracks which grow may either originate from some pre-existing macroscopic defect, or, if the component is of high integrity but highly stressed, a region of localized stress concentration. In turn, such concentrators may be caused by some minute defect, such as a tiny inclusion, or inadvertent machining damage. Another source of surface damage which may exist between notionally 'bonded' components is associated with minute relative motion along the interface, brought about usually be cyclic tangential loading. Such fretting damage is quite insidious, and may lead to many kinds of problems such as wear, but it is its influence on the promotion of embryo cracks with which we are concerned here. When the presence of fretting is associated with decreased fatigue performance the effect is known as fretting fatigue. Fretting fatigue is a subject drawing equally on materials science and applied mechanics, but it is the intention in this book to concentrate attention entirely on the latter aspects, in a search for the quantification of the influence of fretting on both crack nucleation and propagation. There have been very few previous texts in this area, and the present volume seeks to cover five principal areas; (a) The modelling of contact problems including partial slip under tangentialloading, which produces the surface damage. (b) The modelling of short cracks by rigorous methods which deal effectively with steep stress gradients, kinking and closure. (c) The experimental simulation of fretting fatigue.
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Basic Contact Mechanics
22 Plane problems formulation
23 Plane problems solutions
232 Indentation by a rigid flatended punch
233 Indentation by a wedge
234 Indentation by a punch producing constant pressure
24 Axisymmetric problems formulation
523 Real rough surfaces
524 Stresses under rough contacts
54 The influence of surface treatments
The Analysis of Cracks
62 Analysis of plane cracks
63 Partially closed cracks
64 Three dimensional cracks
25 Axisymmetric problems solutions
252 Indentation by a rigid flatended punch
253 Indentation by a cone
254 Indentation by a punch producing constant pressure
Contacts under Partial Slip
32 Contact of cylinders under partial slip
33 Contact of spheres under partial slip
34 Load variation and history dependence
35 The effect of bulk stress
Advanced Contact Mechanics
43 Twisting contacts
441 Numerical solution of integral equations
442 Influence function methods
443 Other techniques
45 Numerical methods layered problems
Mechanics of Surfaces
52 Contact of rough surfaces
521 Regular roughness
522 Random rough surfaces
Fretting Fatigue Tests
72 Bridgetype tests
73 Test geometry the avoidance of singularities
74 Fretting tests based on the Hertzian contact
Analysis of crack propagation
82 Analysis of fretting fatigue cracks
821 Twodimensional analysis
822 Threedimensional analysis
83 Crack arrest in fretting fatigue
Analysis of crack initiation
92 Crack initiation in fretting
93 The bulk approach to initiation analysis
94 Local modelling of crack initiation
941 Asperity passing model
942 Persistent slip band model
Kernels for a dislocation in a halfplane
arise asperity contact axi-symmetric behaviour boundary bulk stress bulk tension Chapter closure coefficient of friction components compressive configuration constant contact geometry contact patch contact problems contacting bodies crack faces crack growth rate crack initiation crack length crack propagation damage described dislocation effect elastically similar experimental Figure finite element method fracture mechanics fretting fatigue fretting fatigue cracks fretting problems geometry give given half-plane hence Hertzian contact Indentation influence function integral equation intensity factor range ISBN material Mindlin mode normal load obtained occurs parameter partial slip plain fatigue plane plane strain plasticity Poisson's ratio possible predict region relative displacement relative slip residual stress rigid rough surfaces shear force shear stress shear traction distribution shown in fig singular sliding slip amplitude slip zones Solid Mechanics solution specimen stick zone strain stress intensity factor surface displacements tangential displacement tangential force tangential loading technique tensile tests zero
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