Biological Micro- and Nanotribology

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 20, 2001 - Medical - 304 pages
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Ever since the genesis of life, and throughout the course its further evolution, Nature has constantly been called upon to act as an engineer in solving technical problems. Organisms have evolved a variety of well-defined shapes and structures. Although often intricate and fragile, they can nonetheless deal with extreme mechanical loads. Some organisms live attached to a substrate; others can also move, fly, swim and dive. These abilities and many more are based on a variety of ingenious structural solutions. Understanding these is of major scientific interest, since it can give insights into the workings of Nature in evolutionary processes. Beyond that, we can discover the detailed chemical and physical properties of the materials which have evolved, can learn about their use as structural elements and their biological role and function. This knowledge is also highly relevant for technical applications by humans. Many of the greatest challenges for today's engineering science involve miniaturization. Insects and other small living creatures have solved many of the same problems during their evolution. Zoologists and morphologists have collected an immense amount of information about the structure of such living micromechanical systems. We have now reached a sophistication beyond the pure descriptive level. Today, advances in physics and chemistry enable us to measure the adhesion, friction, stress and wear of biological structures on the micro- and nanonewton scale. Furthermore, the chemical composition and properties of natural adhesives and lubricants are accessible to chemical analysis.
  

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Contents

1 Introduction
3
2 Physical Principles of Micro and Nanotribology
7
22 Model Materials
9
23 Mechanical Properties
11
232 Elastic Bodies
12
233 Viscoelastic Bodies
13
234 Contact Mechanics
15
24 Adhesion
20
5 Microscale Test Equipment
153
512 Springs for the Micronewton Range
154
513 Ball Selection
155
514 InterferometerBased Tribometers
156
515 FiberOpticsBased Microtribometer
158
516 BioMicrotribometer
161
517 Data Evaluation
163
52 Mechanical Microanalysis
164

241 Molecular Forces
23
242 Electrostatic Forces
25
243 Capillary Forces
28
25 Lubrication
32
251 Simple Liquids Experiments
33
252 Simple Liquids Simulation
35
253 Water Bulk Properties
37
254 Water Molecular Film Properties
39
255 Lubrication and Water Film Thickness
44
256 Solid Lubrication
49
261 Macroscale StickSlips
52
262 Microscale StickSlips
53
263 Nanoscale StickSlips
56
264 StickSlips and Sliding Velocity
57
265 Friction and Sliding Velocity
59
266 Friction versus Temperature and Humidity
64
267 Friction and Contact Geometry
65
268 Normal Force Dependence
68
269 Vibrations
70
27 Wear
73
272 Nanoscale Wear
74
Biological Friction Systems
77
3 Biological Frictional and Adhesive Systems
79
32 Systems with Reduced Friction
80
322 Joints and Articular Cartilage
85
323 Muscle Connective Tissues
91
33 Systems with Increased Friction
94
332 Egg Filaments of Teleostean Fish
95
334 Friction in Fish Spines
97
335 Attachment for Locomotion in Lizard Pads
98
336 Primate Skin
100
338 Interlock in Parasites and Plant Diaspores
101
339 Bird Feather Interlocking Device
102
34 Mediators of Adhesion
103
342 Coupling Agents
104
35 Systems with Increased Adhesion
105
351 Cell Adhesion
106
352 Invertebrates
107
353 Byssus Adhesion in Molluscs
110
354 Tube Feet of Starfish
112
355 Transitory Adhesion of SoftBodied Invertebrates
114
356 Adhesion in Barnacles
116
357 Permanent Adhesion in Insects and Spiders
117
358 Temporary Adhesion in Cladoceran Crustaceans
118
3510 Sticking in Tree Frogs
119
3511 Adhesion in Bats
121
3512 Plants
122
36 Antiadhesive Mechanisms
124
362 Animals
126
4 Frictional Devices of Insects
129
41 Design Principles of Insect Attachment Devices
130
Ultrastructural Architecture of the Material
131
43 Systems of Two Complementary Surfaces
133
432 WingLocking Devices
135
433 Insect Unguitractor Apparatus
137
434 Coxal Interlocking Mechanism in Lacewings
138
44 Systems of One Adaptable Surface
139
441 Surface Characteristics
141
442 Ultrastructural Architecture of the Pad Material
143
443 Two Alternative Designs of Adhesive Pads
145
45 Epidermal Secretions
147
451 Pore Canals
148
Test Equipment
151
522 Scratch Testing
166
523 ContactAngle Measurement
167
524 Profilometry
168
525 Lubrication Analysis
170
531 Photoelectron Spectroscopy
171
532 Auger Electron Spectroscopy
173
533 Infrared Spectroscopy
175
534 LowEnergy Electron Diffraction
176
6 Nanoscale Probe Techniques
179
61 Scanning Tunneling Microscope
180
612 Constant CurrentHeight Mode
181
613 Tunnel Spectroscopy
182
614 Hydration Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
183
62 AFM
184
622 Contact mode
185
623 Tapping Mode
186
624 Noncontact Mode
187
625 Force Modulation
188
632 Nanoscale Friction and Wear
190
633 Nanoindentation
191
7 Microscopy Techniques
193
71 Principles of Microscopy Techniques
194
712 PhaseContrast Microscopy
196
714 Polarization Microscopy
197
716 Transmission Electron Microscopy
198
72 Preparation Procedures
200
722 Embedding
202
723 Sectioning
203
724 Histological Staining
204
726 Contrasting Technique for TEM
205
727 CriticalPoint Drying
206
728 FreezeDrying
207
7210 FreezeSubstitution
208
73 Microscopy Methods Used in Surface Characterization
209
731 Surface Contour in Biological Surfaces
210
74 Special Techniques for Studies on Material Design
212
742 Pore Canals
215
743 Fluids Occurring in the Contact Area
216
744 Material Properties of Fibrous Composites
217
Case Studies
223
8 Samples Sample Preparation and Tester Setup
225
81 A Biological Microsystem
226
82 Sample Aging
228
Indentation and Adhesion
231
92 Indentation
232
93 Adhesion
236
932 The Detachment Process
238
933 Adhesive Properties of the Secretion
239
Friction
243
102 Results
244
1021 Load Dependence and Friction Hysteresis
245
1022 Anisotropy of Friction and Inner Structure
247
Material Properties
251
112 Viscoelastic Properties
252
12 Outlook
255
Appendix
257
A Contact Models
259
B Capillary Theory
261
C Glossary
265
D List of Symbols
273
References
277
Index
299
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