Criminal Man

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Duke University Press, Jul 6, 2006 - History - 424 pages
Cesare Lombroso is widely considered the founder of criminology. His theory of the “born” criminal dominated European and American thinking about the causes of criminal behavior during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth. This volume offers English-language readers the first critical, scholarly translation of Lombroso’s Criminal Man, one of the most famous criminological treatises ever written. The text laid the groundwork for subsequent biological theories of crime, including contemporary genetic explanations.

Originally published in 1876, Criminal Man went through five editions during Lombroso’s lifetime. In each edition Lombroso expanded on his ideas about innate criminality and refined his method for categorizing criminal behavior. In this new translation, Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter bring together for the first time excerpts from all five editions in order to represent the development of Lombroso’s thought and his positivistic approach to understanding criminal behavior.

In Criminal Man, Lombroso used modern Darwinian evolutionary theories to “prove” the inferiority of criminals to “honest” people, of women to men, and of blacks to whites, thereby reinforcing the prevailing politics of sexual and racial hierarchy. He was particularly interested in the physical attributes of criminals—the size of their skulls, the shape of their noses—but he also studied the criminals’ various forms of self-expression, such as letters, graffiti, drawings, and tattoos. This volume includes more than forty of Lombroso’s illustrations of the criminal body along with several photographs of his personal collection. Designed to be useful for scholars and to introduce students to Lombroso’s thought, the volume also includes an extensive introduction, notes, appendices, a glossary, and an index.

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Contents

Criminal Craniums Sixtysix Skulls
45
Anthropometry and Physiognomy of 832 Criminals
50
Tattoos
58
Emotions of Criminals
63
Criminals and Religion
70
Intelligence and Education of Criminals
72
Jargon
77
Criminal Literature
79
Sensitivity and Blushing in Criminals
206
Moral Insanity and Born Criminality
212
Summary of Edition 3
221
EDITION 4 1889
225
EDITORS FOREWORD
227
AUTHORS PREFACE
229
Metabolism Menstruation and Fertility
237
Criminal Communication
239

Insanity and Crime
81
Organized Crime
85
Atavism and Punishment
91
EDITION 2 1878
95
EDITORS FOREWORD
97
AUTHORS PREFACE
99
Suicide among Criminals
101
Criminals of Passion
105
Recidivism Morality and Remorse
108
Handwriting of Criminals
111
Etiology of Crime Weather and Race
114
Etiology of Crime Civilization Alcohol And Heredity
120
Etiology of Crime Age Sex Moral Education Genitals And Imitation
127
Prevention of Crime
135
Penal Policy
141
Giovanni CavagliÓ
149
A Medical Examination of Parricide and Insanity
154
EDITION 3 1884
159
EDITORS FOREWORD
161
AUTHORS PREFACE
163
Crime and Inferior Organisms
167
Crime and Prostitution among Savages
175
Origins of Punishment
183
Moral Insanity and Crime among Children
188
Anomalies of the Brain and Internal Organs
198
Photographs of Born Criminals
202
Art and Industry among Criminals
244
The Epileptic Criminals
247
Epileptics and Born Criminals
253
Physiology and Etiology of Epilepsy
260
The Insane Criminal
267
Biology and Psychology of Insane Criminals
271
The Alcoholic Criminal
277
The Hysterical Criminal
281
The Mattoid
284
The Occasional Criminal
288
EDITION 5 189697
297
EDITORS FOREWORD
299
Criminal Craniums 689 Skulls
301
Anthropometry and Physiognomy of 6608 Criminals
306
Political Criminals
313
Etiology of Crime Urban Density Alcoholism Wealth and Religion
316
Etiology of Crime Heredity Sex and Politics
325
Prevention of Crime
331
Synthesis and Penal Applications
338
Comparison of the Five Italian Editions
357
Illustrations of the Five Italian Editions
364
NOTES
371
GLOSSARY
401
REFERENCES
411
INDEX
417
Copyright

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Page 13 - Lombroso's basic philosophy of punishment never changed. In opposition to the Enlightenment principles of Beccaria, he counseled that punishment be tailored to individual criminals rather than to their crimes. He explicitly rejected the principle of moral responsibility, arguing that criminals acted out of compulsion from either their innate physical and psychological degeneracy or from the social environment.
Page 15 - to claim that the death sentence contradicts the laws of nature is to feign ignorance of the fact that progress in the animal world, and therefore the human world, is based on a struggle for existence that involves hideous massacres.
Page 14 - Pennsylvania or cellular system, where inmates lived and worked in separate cells to prevent communication and moral contamination. Preferable to prison were fines or, if the defendant was poor, community service. For nondangerous criminals, Lombroso advised judges to recommend house arrest, police surveillance, or simply judicial reprimands.
Page 11 - Alcoholic criminals are usually free of physical anomalies, but excessive drinking causes them to develop the same psychological traits as born criminals: impulsiveness, cruelty, lack of remorse, and laziness. Often inheriting a weak constitution from alcoholic parents, offenders of this type are predisposed to violent acts like murder, rape, and homicide.

About the author (2006)

Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), an internationally famous Italian physician and criminologist, wrote extensively about jurisprudence and the causes of crime. He produced more than thirty books during his lifetime.

Mary Gibson is Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Her books include Born to Crime: Cesare Lombroso and the Origins of Biological Criminality. Nicole Hahn Rafter is Senior Research Fellow at Northeastern University. Her books include Creating Born Criminals. Rafter and Gibson translated Lombroso's Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman, also published by Duke University Press.

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