Dark Emu: Black Seeds : Agriculture Or Accident?
Dark Emu puts forward an argument for a reconsideration of the hunter-gatherer tag for pre-colonial Aboriginal Australians. The evidence insists that Aboriginal people right across the continent were using domesticated plants, sowing, harvesting, irrigating and storing - behaviors inconsistent with the hunter-gatherer tag. Gerritsen and Gammage in their latest books support this premise but Pascoe takes this further and challenges the hunter-gatherer tag as a convenient lie. Almost all the evidence comes from the records and diaries of the Australian explorers, impeccable sources.
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This is an exciting book and one on which I will be drawing extensively for teaching Australian Aboriginal history. I have taught Australian Aboriginal history for decades, explaining that the Aborigines were nomadic. Pascoe's (and others) evidence for settlement, cultivation and storage of harvests is irrefutable and cannot be ignored. His book has the most impressive bibliography, highlighting expert analysis and synthesis of credible inferences from primary sources. This is a treasure for all the world; ironically, when we look at the awe and respect afforded to Australian Aborigines 60,000 + years culture, the majority comes from outside of Australia. Thank you Bruce Pascoe for your well researched and important publications.
Dark Emu: aboriginal Australia and the birth of agriculture is a non-fiction book by lecturer, researcher and award-winning author, Bruce Pascoe. Pascoe is of Bunurong and Tasmanian Aboriginal heritage. In this book, he tries to convey a wealth of information about Australia’s indigenous population before white settlement with which many readers will be unfamiliar.
Contrary to previously accepted belief that the Australian aboriginals were hunter-gatherers, Pascoe details evidence of agriculture, of engineering and of game management. Much of the evidence comes from the journals and diaries of early explorers and settlers. They were often amazed at the sophistication, extent and beauty of aboriginal architecture and constructions, including stone houses, dams, weirs, sluices and fish traps. That all this was known but never officially acknowledged, nor taught in schools, is a sad indictment on the greed of early settlers and government seeking to rationalise their theft.
The aboriginals maintained permanent fisheries and were experienced in aquaculture: the Brewarrina fish traps are possibly the oldest known human construction. It’s perhaps the ultimate irony that at the time of first settlement, abalone were referred to as mutton fish and deemed only suitable for the blacks, but now that Asian markets increase demand, they are prosecuted for harvesting this traditional food source.
They milled flour from disease-resistant, drought-tolerant native grains and rices, stores of which were then pilfered by settlers. The indigenous crops and methods produced yields that astonished western observers who then proceeded to ignore the long-held knowledge of the race and introduced their own unsuitable crops and methods to deplete the soils.
Pascoe discusses what is meant by civilisation, maintaining that a race which builds permanent structures, engages in vegetation management by cooperative controlled burning, sows crops and stores the excess yield, produces elaborate clothing such as cloaks, shoes, skirts and hats, such a race cannot be called primitive.
He also suggests that farming emu and kangaroo, and planting native grains, tubers and rice would be more suited to the Australian climate as these are indigenous to the land, thus likely drought-proof and sustainable. Niche markets for innovative farmers would be guaranteed.
Today’s nations could learn much from the pre-settlement Australians who led a peaceable existence through co-operation and sharing of resources and culture instead of conflict and conquest for sovereignty over land and resources.
This audio version is read by the author, and while it is easy enough to listen to, it is perhaps not the best medium for conveying detailed information, or for recalling more than a few points. An eye-opening book that is a must-read for all Australians.