Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention
Lorrie A. Shepard, Mary Lee Smith
Falmer Press, 1989 - Education - 243 pages
This book challenges the efficacy of the policy of American schools of holding children back in grade for a year, and presents evidence that the policy is damaging to those retained, especially to lower classes and minority groups, often causing them to drop out of school altogether.
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Repeating and Dropping Out of School
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able academic achievement addition adjustment analysis asked average beliefs benefit better cent chapter child classroom compared comparison conclusions considered decision dissertation dropout dropping Education effects elementary evaluation evidence example experience extra fact failed failure feel felt findings given going grade retention high school immature included increased indicate individual instruction interviews kids kindergarten kindergarten retention knowledge later learner learning matched math mathematics mean measures negative non-promotion noted parents pass performance points poor positive practice presented principals problem promotion Public Schools pupils question rates readiness reading reasons recommended repeating reported responses retained children sample school district scores selected Shepard skills Smith social solve standard Table teachers teaching things third tion transition University variables