Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease, Volume 1

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Victor R. Preedy
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 2, 2011 - Medical - 3164 pages
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Growth is one of the human body’s most intricate processes: each body part or region has its own unique growth patterns. Yet at the individual and population levels, growth patterns are sensitive to adverse conditions, genetic predispositions, and environmental changes. And despite the body’s capacity to compensate for these developmental setbacks, the effects may be far-reaching, even life-long. The Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease brings this significant and complex field together in one comprehensive volume: impact of adverse variables on growth patterns; issues at different stages of prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence; aspects of catch-up growth, endocrine regulation, and sexual maturation; screening and assessment methods; and international perspectives. Tables and diagrams, applications to other areas of health and disease, and summary points help make the information easier to retain. Together, these 140 self-contained chapters in 15 sections [ok?] cover every area of human growth, including: Intrauterine growth retardation. Postnatal growth in normal and abnormal situations. Cells and growth of tissues. Sensory growth and development. Effects of disease on growth. Methods and standards for assessment of growth, and more. The Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease is an invaluable addition to the reference libraries of a wide range of health professionals, among them health scientists, physicians, physiologists, nutritionists, dieticians, nurses, public health researchers, epidemiologists, exercise physiologists, and physical therapists. It is also useful to college-level students and faculty in the health disciplines, and to policymakers and health economists.
 

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Contents

Contributors
xxiii
About the Editor
1
Part I Normative Features of Growth
2
1 The Concept of the Size Set Point and Implications for Organ Size During Growth
3
2 The Concept of Phenotypic Induction Programming and Implications for Growth
13
3 Adult Height Prediction Models
27
Exploring the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors
59
An Overview
73
The Malaysian Perspective
1545
92 Trends in the Prevalence of Low Birth Weight in Japan
1561
Perspectives from the SouthEast Asia Multicountry Trial of Iron and Zinc Supplementation in Infants SEAMTIZI
1573
Korean Perspectives
1585
Southeast Asian Perspectives
1599
A Focus on Calcium Retention and the Role of Calcium
1611
Perspective of Pacific Island Children in New Zealand
1621
98 Short Stature in Iran
1635

6 Intrauterine Growth Standards
93
7 Legal and Ethical Issues in Infant Growth
115
Part II Intrauterine Growth Retardation Low and Very Low Birth Weight FullTerm Infants
132
8 Nonplacental Causes of IUGR
133
Impact on Child Mental Development and Behavior
147
Role of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
159
Neuropsychological Outcome
177
Neurodevelopmental Outcome
193
13 Lipid Profile in Intrauterine Growth Restriction
209
Implications for Fetal and Postnatal Growth
221
15 Drug Exposure and Intrauterine Growth
235
Focus on US Technique and Periventricular Lesions
263
17 Cardiovascular Changes in IUGR
275
A Focus on Clinical Features and Placental Pathology
299
19 Low Birth Weight A Marker of Intrauterine Stress and Adult Disease
325
A Focus on Metabolic and Epigenetic Aspects
343
Perspectives on Absolute Velocity Charts
365
22 Zinc and Low Birth Weight and Subsequent Growth
377
Practical Methods to Avoid and Treat Malnutrition in Stable and Unstable Neonates
387
24 Anaemia in Defects in Growth Exemplified by Very Low Birth Weight Infants
421
25 Cerebral Metabolism in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant
435
Part III Preterm Infants
449
26 The Relationship Between Growth and Perinatal Factors in Preterm Infants
451
A Focus on WHO Growth Curves After Discharge
465
Preventing Extrauterine Growth Restriction
481
29 Development of Oral Feeding Skills in the Preterm Infant
499
A Focus on the Role of Thyroid Hormones in Neurodevelopment and Growth
513
Cell Proliferation Differentiation and Maturation of Neurons and Myelination in the Archi and Neocortex
523
32 Visual and Visuocognitive Development of Children Born Very Prematurely
543
33 Effect of Necrotizing Enterocolitis on Growth and Development in Preterm Neonates
567
Part IV Postnatal and Infant Growth in Normal and Abnormal Situations
586
34 The New WHO Growth Reference in the First 6 Months of Life and Breastfeeding
587
An Indian Perspective
597
36 Postnatal Growth Failure and ZScore
611
37 Defining the Expected Growth of the Preterm Infant
625
Modulation and Implications
643
39 The Postnatal Endocrine Surge and Its Effects on Subsequent Sexual Growth
663
Effects of Armed Conflict Subsistence Change and Maternal Behavior
681
41 The Growth of Children in Institutions
709
42 Psychological Adjustment and Quality of Life in Impaired Growth
721
43 Postnatal Immune Dysfunction and Its Impact on Growth Parameters
741
44 Environmental Pollutants and Postnatal Growth
757
Korean Perspectives
769
46 Relationship Between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk in Childhood
783
47 Idiopathic Short Stature
797
Relationships Between Diseases Achondroplasia Cystic Fibrosis Growth Hormone Deficiency and Hypothyroidism
813
Part V CatchUp Growth
828
49 CatchUp Growth and Supine LengthHeight in Very Low Birth Weight Small for Gestational Age Preterm Infants
831
50 Testicular CatchUp Growth
851
51 Cholestatic Syndromes in Childhood and CatchUp Growth
863
52 CatchUp of Bone Mineral Density in OsteoporosisPseudoglioma Syndrome
881
A Focus on Mechanisms and Clinical Conditions
893
A Focus on the Growth Plate
905
55 Pharmacogenomics of GHInduced CatchUp Growth in Prepubertal Short Children The Role of the Exon 3DeletedFullLength Growth Hormone R...
917
Role of GH0IGFI Axis and Thyroxine
935
Clinical Features and HypothalamicPituitary Imaging
963
58 Serum Adiponectin Levels Insulin Resistance and Lipids in CatchUp and No CatchUp Growth
987
59 Inhaled Corticosteroids and CatchUp Growth in Children with Asthma
1007
60 Weight Requirements for CatchUp Growth in Adolescent Girls with Eating Disorders
1015
A Focus on the Growth Plate GrowthRelated Genes Autophagy mTOR and microRNAs
1029
A Model for Foot Growth Regulation in Normal Children
1045
Part VI Sexual Maturation Gender and Adolescence
1056
Implications for Growth
1057
The Sebaceous Glands and Adrenocortical Growth and Development
1075
From Puberty to the Menopause
1087
Reference Values of Puberty After Cessation of Secular Trend and Relation Between Puberty and Growth
1103
67 Disorders of Sexual Maturation
1117
68 Impact of Disorders of Gonadal Function in Childhood and Adolescence on Growth Patterns and Outcomes
1137
A Focus on Effects of Phthalates Exposure
1163
70 GonadotropinReleasing Hormone Agonists and Sexual Growth in Precocious Early and Normal Puberty
1181
Interventions to Improve Growth
1199
72 Brain Development During Adolescence
1213
A Prospective Twin Study
1231
74 Growth Aspects of HIVInfected Adolescents in South America
1247
Part VII Cells and Tissue Growth
1254
75 Very Small EmbryonicLike Stem Cells VSELs and Importance in Growth
1257
76 The Role of Human Postnatal Bone MarrowDerived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Importance in Growth Spinal Cord Injury and Other Neu...
1273
77 The Role of Satellite Cells and Stem Cells in Muscle Regeneration
1289
78 Growth of the Normal Human Heart
1305
79 Peak Bone Mass and Peak Bone Strength
1317
The Engine That Drives Bone Elongation
1331
Implications for Neonatal and Infants Feeding Problems
1351
Part VIII Sensory Growth and Development
1362
82 Language Development in Normal Children and in DiseaseAn Interactional Approach to Typical Language Development and Children with Lang...
1363
83 Development of Visual Sensorimotor Systems and Their Cognitive Mediation in Autism
1379
Congenital and Pediatric Infections
1395
85 Growth Factors in Olfaction
1417
86 Hearing Growth Defects in Turner Syndrome
1437
Part IX Country and Regional Aspects of Growth and Growth Monitoring
1445
87 Infant Feeding in 20 Developing Countries with Focus on Infant Undernutrition in Cambodia
1447
88 InsulinLike Growth Factor System in Different Ethnic Groups and Relationship with Growth and Health
1471
Facets of Abnormal Growth
1491
Data from a Spanish Study Including 540 Subjects 281 Boys and 259 Girls
1525
South Africa Perspectives
1647
Mexico Perspectives
1659
Part X Effects of Disease Conditions on Growth
1674
Weight and Stature Percentiles by Age Gender and Level of Disability
1675
Can It Be Corrected?
1711
103 Vulnerability of Adolescent Brain Growth to Cannabis
1723
104 Growth Monitoring on Psychotropic Medication
1737
105 Growth in Asthmatic Children
1755
106 Growth of Children with CleftLip Palate from Birth to 10 Years of Age
1763
107 Growth of Infants with Isolated Robin Sequence
1779
108 Orthognathic Surgery Considerations in the Young Patient and Effects on Facial Growth
1789
Effects on Facial Growth and Surgical Treatment
1809
110 Growth in Osteogenesis Imperfecta
1829
111 Growth Following Pediatric Heart Transplantation
1841
112 Microtia and Sensory Defects in Growth
1853
An Overview
1867
Chinese Perspectives
1893
115 Growth of Infants with IgEMediated Cows Milk Allergy
1911
116 Aromatase Inhibitors and Growth Disorders
1921
Impact on Physical and Compartmental Growth
1933
118 Statural Growth in HIVInfected Children
1949
119 Growth in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
1959
Applications to Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
1977
121 Growth of Children in Conflict
1989
122 Growth Failure in International Adoptees
2003
A Focus on the Postnatal Period
2023
A Focus on Cardiovascular Metabolic Respiratory Abnormalities Malignancies and Bone Alterations
2047
125 Growth in Hemochromatosis
2067
Part XI Effects of Genetic Conditions on Growth
2090
126 Impairment of Body Growth in Mucopolysaccharidoses
2091
127 Growth in Classical Galactosemia
2119
128 Growth in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
2129
129 Growth and Development in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome 47XXY
2155
Anthropometric Patterns and Analysis
2175
131 Growth Defects in Noonan Syndrome
2201
132 Longitudinal Growth in Xlinked Hypophosphatemic Rickets
2217
133 Growth in Individuals with Down Syndrome
2231
Clinical Manifestations and Management of the Growing Thalassemic Child
2247
135 Growth in Distal Arthrogryposes
2265
136 Growth and GrowthPromoting Therapy in Turner Syndrome
2281
Genetics and Growth Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Comparison with Turner Syndrome
2299
138 Zinc Transporter Mutations and Human Growth
2319
139 Growth in Common Inherited Disorders 0 Cystic Fibrosis Sickle Cell Disease and Phenylketonuria
2337
140 Growth in Thanatophoric Dysplasia
2349
141 Microarrays Postnatal Analysis and Implications for Growth Monitoring
2365
142 The Potential of Gene Therapy as a Treatment Strategy for Intrauterine Growth Restriction
2379
Part XII Exercise Sport and Growth
2394
A Public Health Perspective
2395
An EvidenceBased Approach to Exercise Prescription
2413
145 The Interaction of Exercise Stress and Inflammation on Growth
2427
146 How Physical Activity Affects the Growth0Nutrient0Bone Relationship
2455
Implications for Body Growth
2473
Part XIII Nutrition Diet and Regulation of Growth
2492
148 Maternal Nutritional Status Dictates Neonatal Outcome
2493
149 Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition of the Low Birth Weight Infant
2507
A Review of the Literature
2523
151 Vitamin D Exercise and Body Composition in Young Children and Adolescents
2539
152 Dietary Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Fetal Growth
2559
153 n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Foetal Growth
2579
154 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Growth in Healthy Children and Some Rare Diseases
2597
155 Folate and Fetal Growth
2619
Growth Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In Preschoolers GENESIS Study
2629
Part XIV Growth Factors Endocrine Control and Regulation of Growth
2649
An Overview
2651
Clinical Features Controversies and Outcomes in the Pediatric Population
2670
159 Pseudohypoparathyroidism and Growth
2687
Impact on Growth Metabolism Body Composition and Survival Capacity
2699
161 Growth and the InsulinLike Growth Factor1 Receptor IGF1R
2711
162 Recombinant Insulinlike Growth Factor I in Growth Therapy
2723
163 Genetic Disorders of the HypothalamicPituitaryGHIGFI Axis
2743
164 Growth and GHIGF in Chronic Kidney Disease
2763
The Effects of Environmental Compounds on the Timing of Puberty in Humans
2773
166 CType Natriuretic Peptide CNP and Postnatal Linear Growth
2789
167 EphEphrin Signaling in Postnatal Epithelial Growth
2811
168 The Role of Osteocrin and Its Interaction with the Natriuretic System in Bone Growth
2825
169 The Importance of the Adiponectin and Leptin Relationship in In Utero and Infant Growth
2839
Overview of Their Roles in Postnatal Growth and Development
2857
Implications for Human Growth
2871
Part XV Assessment of Growth Methods Standards and Comparative Data
2889
India Perspectives
2891
173 The WHO Growth Curves and US Infants
2903
174 Growth Standards for Turkish Children Under 5 Years of Age
2913
Experience from a Swedish Population
2923
176 Bone Growth Estimation Using Radiology GreulichPyle and TannerWhitehouse Methods
2937
177 Monitoring Bone Growth Using DXA and pQCT
2955
178 Fetal Growth Disturbances and Doppler
2969
Application to Neurodevelopment
2981
What They Are and How to Use Them
2999
181 Limitation of Growth Chart Curves in Terms of Individual Growth Biology
3013
182 EvidenceBased Guidelines for Growth Monitoring
3029
183 Infant Growth Modelling and Assessment of Growth
3045
Index
3057
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About the author (2011)

Victor R. Preedy is currently Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, King's College London and Honorary Professor of Clinical Biochemistry in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King's College Hospital. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre, Kings College London. He is presently a member of the School of Medicine, King’s College London. King’s College London is one of the leading universities, currently ranked consistently within the top 25 in the world. Professor Preedy gained his Ph.D. in 1981 and in 1992 he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists (MRCPath), based on his published works. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists (FRCPath) in 2000. In 1993 he gained his second doctorial degree (DSc) for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism. In 2004 Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow to both the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (FRSH) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (FRIPHH). In 2009 he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH). He is also a Fellow of The Society of Biology (FSB). Professor Preedy has written or edited over 550 articles, which includes over 160 peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research and 85 reviews and 30 books. His interests pertain to matters concerning nutrition and health at the individual and societal levels.

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