Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants: Biology, Behavior and the Fossil Record
The diminishing population of African and Asian elephants can be compared to the extinction of other elephant-like species, such as mammoths and mastodonts, which occurred more than ten thousand years ago. The purpose of this book is to use the ecology and behavior of modern elephants to create models for reconstructing the life and death of extinct mammoths and mastodonts. The source of the models is a long-term and continuing study of elephants in Zimbabwe, Africa. These models are clearly described with respect to the anatomical, behavioral, and ecological similarities between past and present proboscideans. The implications of these similarities on the life and death of mammoths and mastodonts is explored in detail. The importance of this book is primarily its unifying perspective on living and extinct proboscideans: the fossil record is closely examined and compared to the natural history of surviving elephants. Dr. Haynes's studies of the places where African elephants die (so-called elephant burial grounds) are unique.
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Taxonomy classification of fossil and living forms
Physical appearance mammoths mastodonts and modern elephants
A referential model for understanding mammoths and mastodonts social structure and habitat use by modern elephants
Actualistic studies of mass deaths
Actualistic studies of mass kills
Finding meaning in proboscidean sites the world fossil record
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1987 personal communication adult females adult males African elephants age classes age profiles animals archeological areas artifacts Asian elephants behavior Berelyokh Beryozovka bison body bone assemblages bone representation broken butchering Camelops carcasses carnivores Clovis points columbi contain cull death deposits die-off diet drought dry season elephant bones elephant populations epiphyseal fusion extinct feeding Figure flakes fossil record fractured fragments fused Garutt giraffe gomphotheres groups habitats Haynes unpublished data human hunting Hwange National Park hyenas ivory kill sites Late Glacial late Pleistocene limb bones Loxodonta mammals mammoth bones mammoths and mastodonts Mammut Mammuthus Mammuthus columbi mass matriarchs meat migrate mixed herds modern elephants noncultural North America numbers predation preserved primigenius proboscidean radiocarbon dates ranges relatively result sample Saunders sediments seeps Shabi Shabi Shakwanki similar skeletons skull specimens spotted hyenas studies subadults surface Table taxa teeth tooth trampling tusks Vereshchagin water sources wear woolly mammoths Zimbabwe
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