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Muhammadijah in Minangkabau 190
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Abduh able activities actual adat Ahmad already appeared attitude authorities become bound branches called cause century Chapter Christians close colonial concerning Congress Consequently continued criticism Dahlan discovered discussed Djakarta Dutch East established example existence Fachruddin fact Faith Finally force growth Hadji Rasul held Hurgronje Ibid ideas important increasing Indonesian Muslims influence intellectual Islamic modernism Java Jogjakarta Kiyai known largely later leaders leadership less madijah Mailrapport major Mansur matter meaning meeting Minangkabau movement Muham Muhammad Muhammadijah Muslim community Muslim modernists nationalist native notably op.cit organization origin partly period political position practices probably radical region religion religious representative result role ruling santris Sarekat Islam secular seemed seen Sheikh significant Snouck social society spread strong strongly success Sumatra teachers teachings thing tion traditional true ulamas various Western whole