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Agassiz alisphenoid anatomist anatomy anchylosed animals anthropotomy apophyses archetype articular articulated atlas batrachians birds bony called canal capsule cartilage cartilaginous cavity centres centrum cervical character chelonians coalesced connate connections cranial vertebrae cranium crocodile Cuvier distal distinct bone diverging appendage dorsal elements endoskeleton essential ethmoid exoccipital expanded frontal vertebra Geoffroy haemal arch haemal spine haemapophyses homology homotypes human inverted arch lepidosiren mammalian mammals manifested mastoid maxillary modification nasal vertebra neural arch neural spine neurapophyses notochord occipital vertebra olfactory nerves opercular orbit orbitosphenoids ossicles ossified parapophysis parietal vertebra pelvic perforated petrosal physes pieces plate pleurapophysis portion posterior prefrontals primitive proximal rays recognised regard relation reptiles retains rhinencephalic ribs rudimental sacral sacrum scapular scapular arch serial skeleton skull special homology sphenoid squamosal supraoccipital suture temporal term transverse processes trunk tympanic upper vertebral column vertebral segments vertebrata vomer
Page 59 - autogenous" elements. The italics denote the parts, more properly called processes, which shoot out as continuations from some of the preceding elemente, and are termed 'exogenous': eg the diapophyses or upper ' transverse processes,' and the zygapophyses, or the ' oblique ' or ' articular processes ' of human anatomy. The autogenous processes generally circumscribe holes about the centrum, which, in the chain of vertebrae, form canals. The...
Page 58 - He becomes the true discoverer who establishes the truth : and the sign of the proof is the general acceptance. Whoever, therefore, resumes the investigation of a neglected or repudiated doctrine, elicits its true demonstration, and discovers and explains the nature of the errors which have led to its tacit or declared rejection, may calmly and confidently await the acknowledgments of his rights in its discovery.
Page 70 - Amongst air-breathing vertebrates the pleurapophyses of the trunk segments are present only in those species in which the septum of the heart's ventricle is complete and imperforate, and here they are exogenous and confined to the cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae.
Page 113 - It has been abundantly proved, I trust, that the idea of a natural segment (vertebra) of the endoskeleton, does not necessarily involve the presence of a particular number of pieces, or even a determinate and unchangeable arrangement of them. The great object of my present labour has been to deduce, by careful and sufficient observation of Nature, the relative value and constancy of the different vertebral elements, and to trace the kind and extent of their variations within the limits of a plain...
Page 73 - ... is counted as a single component bone of the skeleton, is sufficiently obvious. The os innominatum is represented throughout life in most reptiles by three distinct bones, answering to the iliac, ischial, and pubic portions in anthropotomy. The sternum in most quadrupeds consists of one more bone than the number of pairs of ribs which join it ; thus it includes as many as thirteen distinct bones in the Bradypus didactylm. The arbitrary character of the definition of a bone, as ' any single piece...
Page 58 - ... this knowledge is the determination of the vertebral segments, or natural groups of bones, of which the myelencephalous skeleton consists. I define a vertebra, as one of those segments of the endo-skeleton which constitute the axis of the body, and the protecting canals of the nervous and vascular trunks : such a segment may also support diverging appendages.