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Evolutionary Hypotheses and Tests
Modes of Reproduction
Sexual Selection Theory
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ability able active adaptive adult advantage Alcock alternative animals appear attempt attract bark beetles become beetles behavior benefits body butterflies calling chance compete competition copulation costs court courtship crickets defend effect eggs emerge evolution example favor feeding female's fertilize fight flies function gain gametes genes genetic guarding increase individuals insects investment larger less limited male's males males and females mate material nature nest nuptial occur offer offspring oviposition pair parental pattern perch perhaps period pheromone plants population possible potential prediction preference prevent prey probably produce received receptive females reduce relatively release remain reproductive success resource result risk rivals selection sexual sexual reproduction signals single species sperm spermatophore territory tion traits transfer tree usually virgin wasps wings