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Upper airway form and function
Climate weather air pollution
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Acta Otolaryngol activity airflow allergen allergic alveoli Arch blood body breathing cause cavity changes Chapter chemical cilia ciliary clearance concentration contains decrease density described developed direction disease distribution effect environment epithelium exposure factors flow fluid function glands glycoproteins goblet cells Health heat human humidity important increased indicates infection inferior influence inhaled intensity Laryngol lateral layer lower lung maxillary means measured mechanisms membrane method middle mucociliary mucous mucus nasal mucosa nasal secretions nature nerve normal nose observations occur odor olfactory paranasal sinuses particles passages patients Physiol Physiology pollutants posterior present pressure Proctor produced range region relatively resistance respiratory tract response rhinitis Rhinol secretory septum shown significant similar sinus stimulation studies subjects substances suggested surface symptoms syndrome temperature tissue trachea transport tube turbinate upper airway varies ventilation wall week