Untranslated Gene Regions and Other Non-coding Elements: Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 26, 2013 - Science - 56 pages
There is now compelling evidence that the complexity of higher organisms correlates with the relative amount of non-coding RNA rather than the number of protein-coding genes. Previously dismissed as “junk DNA”, it is the non-coding regions of the genome that are responsible for regulation, facilitating complex temporal and spatial gene expression through the combinatorial effect of numerous mechanisms and interactions working together to fine-tune gene expression. The major regions involved in regulation of a particular gene are the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions and introns. In addition, pervasive transcription of complex genomes produces a variety of non-coding transcripts that interact with these regions and contribute to regulation. This book discusses recent insights into the regulatory roles of the untranslated gene regions and non-coding RNAs in the control of complex gene expression, as well as the implications of this in terms of organism complexity and evolution.
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30 untranslated regions Acad Sci USA activity alternative promoters antisense ARE-BPs bidirectional promoter binding proteins Biochem cancer cell types cellular ceRNA coding regions complex conserved containing control of gene core promoter CpG islands developmental dispersed promoters downstream eukaryotic evolution exons function G-quadruplex gene expression genes involved Genet genome-wide human genome identified impact increased indicates inhibits interactions introns IRES isoforms length Long non-coding RNAs longer 30UTR mammalian Mattick mechanism mediated microRNA miRNA binding miRNAs modulate motifs mRNA multiple mutations Nat Rev Natl Acad Sci non-coding RNAs Nucleic Acids Res nucleotide open reading frames PABPs pathways poly(A polyadenylation post-transcriptional Proc Natl Acad processes promoter region protein expression pseudogenes recent study regulation of gene regulatory elements repression result ribosome role secondary structure sequence silico siRNAs specific stability stem-loop stem-loop structure target TATA-box tissue-specific trans transcription factors translation efficiency translation initiation untranslated regions uORFs variation XIAP Zhang