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Records from western Australia (Taylor and Murray 1946). Present on marine birds, Guam (Kohls 1953). Specimen from leg of soldier on island in Lake Nyasa (Hoogstraal 1954C).

O. coniceps (Canestrini, 1890); described from Venice, Italy. pecimens, from near Aral Sea, in St. Petersburg Museum # 1895); these quoted by Yakimov and Kohl-Yakimov 1911) and Yakimov (1917, 1922). Present in France (Guitel 1918, Theodor 1932, Roman and Nalin 1948). As O. talaje from Fezzan, Morocco; introduced with pigeons; severe sequelae in human victims (Martial and Senevet 1921). From bats and pigeons, life cycle, Tunis (Colas-Belcour 1929D). Description of all stages, Palestine (Theodor 1932). Biology, Palestine (Bodenheimer 1934). Present in Spain (Gil Collado 1947,1948A,B). Present in Morocco (Blanc and Maurice 1950). Present in Nablus area of Jordan; parasite of chickens and persons; infected with spirochetes (Badudieri 1954, 1955). Transmits fowl spirochetes. ("Brumpt's Precis"). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros 1956C).

O. delanoëi delanoëi Roubaud and Colas-Belcour, 1931; described

- from porcupine burrow, Morocco. Biology (Roubaud and ColasBelcour 1936). Life cycle and larval feeding (Colas-Belcour 1941). Non-transmission of spirochetes (Colas-Belcour and Vervent 1949). Present in Egypt (Hoogstraal 1953C). Absence of spirochetes (Davis and Hoogstraal 1954). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros 1956A). Biological observations and distribution in Egypt; descriptions of immature stages (Hoogstraal 1955E).

O. delanoëi acinus Whittick, 1938; described from cave in British

- Somaliland. Haemoglobin (Wigglesworth 1943). Biology (Robinson 1946). Coxal organs £ ) (Lees 1946B). Transpiration from cuticle (Lees 1948). Egg waxing organ (Lees and Beament 1948). Weight of tick and of its cuticle, fed and unfed (Lees 1952). Larval and nymphal measurements, and the increase in size following each molt and male measurements have been noted by Campana-Rouget (1954).

C. erraticus Lucas, 1849; described from Algeria and now known in Iran, Turkey, and throughout much of the European and African Mediterranean area as well as in French West Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. This tick chiefly inhabits rodent burrows, sometimes lairs and dens of other animals, and pigsties. It also may parasitize man, reptiles, toads, and birds. The very extensive literature on O. erraticus will be reviewed in Volume II of this work.

O. # Parrot, 1928; single female described from the Algerian

- a. Description repeated by Foley (1929). A synonym of O. foleyi is o. franchinii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1930(B) from Tibya; cf. Roubaud and Colas-Belcour (1931). As O. lahorensis, O. lahorensis group, or O. franchinii from Libya by Franchini T1927, 1923B, I932A,B,1933K,D,19% A.I.935A,1937) and Franchini and Taddia (1930); in these reports, the general remarks and those concerning fever in man as a result of bites do not appear to be based on sound evidence; the "biological differences" (1934A) are pointless. Morphology and generic discussion (Warburton 1933); cf. remarks herein under Argas # (page 88). Presence in Southeastern Egypt oogstraal a. ser 1956). Life cycle (Davis and Mavros 1956D).

O. graingeri Heisch and Guggisberg, 1953(A); all stages described

" " from coral cave near sea, Mombasa. Life history (Heisch and Harvey 1953). Infected with spirochetes (Heisch 1953). Parasitizing bats (Garnham and Heisch 1953). Parasitizing porcupines and man (Heisch 1954A). Note: The actual date of publication of this species is 8 January 1953 although the volume number is that, of 1952.

O. normandi Larrousse, 1923; all stages described, life cycle, from

- rodent burrows in Tunisia. Morphologic characters and biology (Colas-Belcour 1928). Egg laying and hatching (Colas-Belcour 1929A). Spirochete studies by Nicolle, Anderson, and ColasBelcour (1927A, B, 1928A,B,C,D,1930).

ZTQ. pavimentosus Neumann, 1901; reported from Southwest Africa. # under O. savignyi by Theiler and Hoogstraal (1955).

Q- £# Bedford and Hewitt, 1925; scanty descriptions and illustrations of male, female, and nymph from South Africa. Cliff swallow as host (Bedford 1929A, 1932A). Failure to

transmit Aegyptianella lorum (Bedford and Coles 1933).

All stages redescribed # reillustrated (Bedford 1934). O. salahi Hoogstraal, 1953(B); a parasite of fruit bats in the

Nile Valley and Wadi Natroun (Western Desert) of Egypt;

also known from Palestine; all stages described; life history. Absence of spirochetes (Davis and Hoogstraal 1954).

C. tholozani tholozani Laboulbene and Megnin, 1882(A); first described from Iran. An important Asiatic vector of spirochetes of relapsing fever; the tholozani group consists of several subspecies and related species; reviewed by Desportes and Campana (1946). Rare in western Egypt and eastern Libya (Coghill, Lawrence, and Ballentine 1947; Hoogstraal 1953C) but accused of transmitting spirochetes causing disease in troops. Now known from several restricted, but large, spirochete-infected populations in Egypt (Davis and Hoogstraal 1956) and from Jordan (Babudieri 1954, 1955).

0. zumpti Heisch and Guggisberg, 1953(B); female and nymph described from burrow of rodent (Rhabdomys ilio) in Cape Province, South Africa. Onderstepoort g£, material recently sent by Dr. Theiler for identification includes

males, females, and nymphs from the nests of Aethomys and ?Tatera in Cape Province.

A 9. lahorensis Neumann, 1908, an Asiatic-Near Eastern species, said by Franchini (1929B,1932B, 1935) and Garibaldi (1935) to occur in Libya; most probably does not extend its range into North Africa. 7

O. sp. nov.; an undescribed species closely related to 0.

- foleyi has recently been found in porcupine burrows near Pretoria in the Union of South Africa (Theiler, correspondence).


With two pairs of eyes in lateral fold.
(Northern and Central Sudan).........................0. SAVIGNYI

Figures 3-5-12

Without eyes. (Southern Sudan).......................0- MOUBATA Figures 39"EOTE2

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