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AlABLYOMMA MARMOREUM Koch, 1844 (GROUP )#
THE LARGE REPTILE-AMBLYOMMA.
L N 9 o' EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORDS 4. l TOrit Waranus n, niloticus** Dec l l TOrit KInt:ys E. Berltana: Jan 6 5 20 Juba KInt S.E. bel Tiana:# Dec
Torit and Juba appear to be the only locality records available for the Sudan. A number of Waranus lizards and tortoises in Torit and Juba Districts and elsewhere in the Sudan have been examined but this tick was found only on the three reptiles listed above. Sudan Government collections also contain specimens from Atiambo, formerly in this Province but now a part of Uganda.
*Sudan specimens referable to A. marmoreum fall into what is believed to be a group of closely related African species in need of careful study before definite names can be satisfactorily applied. References here are for any ticks for which the name A. marmoreum has been used. The term "A. marmoreum group", as here used, includes specimens that can be keyed to this name in the Robinson (1926) key, or that come close to it but do not equal related species such as A. nuttalli. The A. falso marmoreum of Tonelli-Rondelli (1935) also falls "into this group. "The disposition of this group dictated by Schulze (1932A) is hopelessly unnatural and practically useless. **The distribution of W. niloticus and related species is stated on page 283. K. b. belliana ranges as far west as Cameroons, where the subspecies nogueyi also occurs; the latter extends westward to Sierra Leone veridge, correspondence).
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
A Khartoum: Omdurman (King 1926). Khartoum (Nuttall 1914A, Robinson T926). Specimens from Omdurman and Khartoum in Sudan Government collections are from captive tortoises from unstated localities and probably represent the records or parts of the collections on which King's, Nuttall's, and Robinson's statements were made. No evidence is at hand to show that this tick occurs in nature in Khartoum Province. 7
A. marmoreum ranges throughout the Ethiopian Faunal Region, except in The Arabian extension of this area. It appears to be more common in eastern and in southern Africa than it is in western and central Africa.
A NORTH AFRICA: ALGERIA (As A. sparsum: Neumann 1899. This specimen was actually collected in the Paris Zoological Garden” (Bequaert, correspondence). The occurrence of A. marmoreum in Algeria and North Africa is questionable. See footnote, page
WEST AFRICA: FRENCHWEST AFRICA (Neumann 1911). SIERRA LEONE (Entomological Report 1916. Hoogstraal 1954C).
CENTRAL AFRICA: BELGIAN CONGO (Neumann 1911. Nuttall and Warburton T915.TBequaert 1930A,1931).
Note: According to Theiler #: the record for Ruanda-Urundi in Santos Dias (1954D) is incorrect.
EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (King 1911, 1926. Nuttall 1914A. Robinson 1926. "Hoogstraal 1954B).
*Hesse (1920) reported a female from the Leipzig Zoological Gardens and Hoogstraal (1954C) another from the London Zoological Gardens.
ETHIOPIA (Neumann 1922. Stella 1938A, 1939A, 1940. Charters 1946). ERITREA (Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. Stella 1940). "SOMALLLAND, Gueldessa" (Robinson 1926). BRITISH SOMALILAND (Neumann 1922. Stella 1938A, 1939A). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (Paoli 1916. Tonelli-Rondelli 1932E, see also Tonelli-Rondelli 1935 as A. falsomarmoreum sp. nov. Niro 1935. Stella 1940).
KENYA (Neumann 1899,1901,1911,1912. Neave 1912. Anderson 1924A, B. Robinson 1926. Bequaert 1930A. Lewis 1931A,C,1932A, 1934, 1939A. Loveridge 1936B). UGANDA (Hirst 1909. Robinson 1926. Mettam 1932. Wilson 1950C. Binns 1952). TANGANYIKA (Howard 1903. Neumann 1907C,1910B,1911. Morstatt 1913. Loveridge l923C, as A. marmoreum is actually A. nuttalli according to Bequaert 1930A. "Robinson 1926. Loveridge T928." J. B. Walker, unpublished; see HOSTS below).
SOUTHERN AFRICA: ANGOLA (Specimens in HH collection). MOZAMBIAUE (Howard 1908. Neumann 1911. Robinson 1926. Santos Dias 1947A,1951A, 1952D,1953B. Hoogstraal 1954C).
NORTHERN RHODESLA (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926). SOUTHERN RHODESIA (Jack 1921,1928, 1937,1942). NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926. Wilson 1950B).
BECHUANALAND (Robinson 1926). SOUTHWEST AFRICA (Tromsdorff 1914). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Koch 1844. Neumann 1899, 1901, 1911. Lounsbury 1905*. Howard 1903. Dönitz 1910B. Moore 1912. Bedford 1920, 1926, 1927,1932B. Robinson 1926. Curson 1928. Alexander 1931. Bedford and Graf 1934,1939. Neitz 1948).
OUTLYING ISLANDS: ZANZIBAR (Neumann 1899,1901,1911).
The chief hosts of the components of the "A. marmoreum group" await to be determined. Tortoises and the rhinoceros were mentioned by all early workers, mostly without further data (see REMARKS).
*See Robinson (1926).
Contemporary reports of the rhinoceros, Rhinoceros bicornis
subspp. as a host are chiefly those of Robinson (T5:57-55-F:
corded half a dozen collections from Kenya, Nyasaland, and Rhodesia. My collection and that of the Museum of Comparative Zoëlogy contain specimens from rhinoceros in Kenya. Miss Walker's Tanganyika collections (correspondence) contain 47 males and seven
females from four rhinoceros hosts. The white, or square-lipped, rhinoceros, Ceratotherium s. simun, is a host in Zululand (Curson
Recent records from tortoises, Testudo spp. or Kinixys belliana, are those of Neumann (1922), Robinson (1936) with numerous collections from throughout the tick's range, and Hoogstraal (1954C) from Sierra Leone. Bedford's (1932B) statements and Theiler's unpublished records from South Africa indicate that tortoises are commonly infested in Transvaal and are the tick's chief host there. Other scattered records for tortoises are those of the Sudan specimens above, Mettam (1932) for Uganda, Wilson (1950B) for Nyasaland, and Santos Dias' (1953B) summary of Mozambique ticks in which no other hosts are listed for A. marmoreum. A single collection from Tanganyika consists of six males and nine females (J. B. Walker, unpublished).
The warrener or leguan lizard, Waranus spp., is sometimes attacked. More recent reports are the single collection of Robinson (1926) and that from the Sudan listed above, Mettam's (1932) Uganda note, Loveridge's (1936A) Kenya record, a few lots in the Onderstepoort collection (Theiler, unpublished), and a few lots in the HH collection including one from Angola.
Some snakes are hosts, apparently only exceptionally”. Neumann's (1911) A. sparsun (said to be a synonym of A. marmoreum)
*The hosts of A. s. sparsum Neumann, 1399 (according to Robinson 1926 a synonym of A. marmoreum) were reported by Neumann to be # variabilis and Testudo mauritanica from Algeria and East rica. S. Variabilis is a Synonym of S. P. pullatus, a large South American tree snake (Loveridge, correspondence). Therefore, since A. marmoreum (= A. spersu:) does not occur in South America, either Neumann's locality record or host record is incorrect. The fact that the "Algerian" material of A. sparsum was collected in a European zoological garden (cf. page 226) would suggest that both data are difficult to assess. It further suggests that the validity of the synonymy of A. sparsum should be reinvestigated.
came from Spilotes P. Pullatus (= variabilis). Puff adders, Bitis spp., have been reported by Hirst (1909), Robinson (1926), Loveridge (1928), Bequaert (1930A), and Hoogstraal (1954C); Miss Walker's Tanganyika collection (correspondence) contains four males and a female from one puff adder. Python sp. has been listed by Neumann (1911) and Lewis (1934).
Mammals, other than the rhinoceros, are also occasional hosts. Theiler's unpublished records include some adults from domestic cattle and sheep. Lewis (1939A) found specimens rarely on buffalo and on domestic cattle. Two buffaloes were listed by Bequaert (1930A, 1931) and one by Robinson (1926); my collection contains 37 specimens from a single buffalo in Kenya. Neumann (1911) recorded a genet, Genetta pardina, Robinson (1926) an eland, and Tonelli-Rondelli (193CR) a bushpig. In my collection are numerous adults from giraffes in Kenya. Alexander (1931) was unable to induce adults to feed on domestic animals.
Among birds, the guineafowl has been recorded as a Uganda host by Mettam (1932).
Man was reported as an actual host by Charters (1946) in Ethiopia.
Nymphs are sometimes taken with adults from tortoises. Dr. Theiler (unpublished records) has numerous nymphs from fowls. Seven nymphs were removed from the African hoopoe, U africana, in Mozambique (Hoogstraal 1954C). Lounsbury (1905*) # Howard (1908) reported that larvae and nymphs feed readily on lizards, cattle, goats, tortoises, and birds.
In the Onderstepoort laboratory, larvae and nymphs feed readily on guineapigs but adults do not (Theiler, correspondence). Kenya larvae and nymphs from females from tortoises feed well on the ears of rabbits, and resulting adults on the scrotum of a ram. This is a hardy species, and sixteen-month old nymphs feed quite werl while adults remain alive for 23 months without feeding (J. B. Walker, correspondence). See REMARKS below.
*See Robinson (1926).