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EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (King 1926. Hoogstraal 1954B,C).

BRITISH SOMALILAND (Neumann 1922. Stella 1938A, 1939A, 1940). TTALIAN SOMALILAND (Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. Stella 1940).

KENYA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1913,1922. Anderson 1924A,B. Robinson 1926. Bedford 1932B. Lewis 1931C,1934. Weber 1948). UGANDA (Neave 1912. Neumann 1922. Robinson 1926. Schwetz 1927C, p. 92, as Belgian Congo. Bequaert 1930A, p. 803. Mettam l932, 1933. Wilson 1950C). TANGANYIKA (Neumann 1901,1907C,1910B,1911. Neave 1912. Morstatt l913. Robinson 1926. J. B. Walker; unpublished).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: NORTHERN RHODESIA (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926). ESIA (Jack 1942). NYASALAND (Neave 1912. Robinson 1926. Wilson 1950B). MOZAMBIQUE (Karsch 1878. Neumann 1911. Santos Dias 1947A,1953B). UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Breijer # Bedford and Hewitt 1925. Curson 1928. Bedford 1932B, 1936).

2# ISLANDS: MADAGASCAR: Neumann (1901,1911). Poisson (1927). Locality record probably erroneous, cf. Hoogstraal (1953E). ZANZIBAR: Neumann (1899) probably in error, see WEST AFRICA above.7

A Note: Neumann (1899) listed JAVA for the synonymous A. aureum but subsequently (1908) he stated that the specimen on which this record was based was actually A. testudinarium. 7

HOSTS

All workers list as hosts either the black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, or the white or square-lipped rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, the latter in both the northern and southern areas of its range. Other animals that uncommonly serve as hosts are: eland #: 1907C,1910B,1911), tortoise (Bedford 1936), and python Mettam 1932). Domestic cattle: numerous adults, in a single lot; Uganda Veterinary Service collections.

BIOLOGY

Unstudied.

DISEASE RELATIONS

Unstudied.

REMARKS

The frequent records of specimens taken from grass are due to the large size and conspicuousness of the rhinoceros amblyomma.

This species often has been referred to as A. Petersi (Karsch, 1878), but according to Schulze (1932A), this name is synonymous with A. rhinocerotis (de Geer, 1778). This decision is acceptable for the present, but it must be noted that Theiler (correspondence) is far from certain of its validity. Obviously needed is a careful study of the original material and literature by a competent contemporary student with full access to pertinent specimens.

The specific name rhinocerotis (de Geer, 1778) frequently has been applied to Dermacentor rhinocerinus (Denny, 1843). However, as Bequaert (193CB) pointed out, Dönitz." (1910B) has long ago indicated that de Geer's specimens belonged in the genus Amblyomma because of their longer palpi.

The remarkable parallel or convergent evolution of rhinocerosinfesting Amblyomma and Dermacentor ticks, and the relationship of Cosmiomma hippopotamense (Denny, 1843), a hyalommalike beast, is Wörthy of SPECTRTstudy:

The capsule of larval haller's organ in A. rhinocerotis has been noted by Schulze (1941), who also (1950A) discussed the adult dentition of this species.

IDENTIFICATION

Males, at least 8.0 mm. long and 7.0 mm. wide, are as large as any other African amblyomma. The scutum lacks lateral grooves, has bicolored festoons, small and flat eyes, extensive pale (yellowish) ornamentation on a dark (reddish-brown) background, and a few large scattered punctations. The leg segments have narrow pale distal rings.

Females are also very large, approximately 9.0 mm. long and 8.0 mm. wide. The scutum is largely pale (reddish or golden) with lateral margins and small internal areas dark reddish-brown; it bears few coarse punctations on the anterior half but numerous fine punctations; eyes are flat or very slightly convex. The leg segments exhibit narrow, pale distal rings.

Figures 88 and 89, d', dorsal and ventral views Figures 90 and 91, Q, dorsal and ventral views

AMBLYOMMA THOLLONI
an Specimens

PLATE XXX

- 253 –

[graphic]

AMBLYOMMA THOLLONI Neumann, 1899.
(Figures 88 to 91)

THE ELEPHANT AMBLYOMMA

L N Q d' EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORDS 19 l78 Lottl Forest Loxodonta africana oxyotis Apr 8 l; Tereteina Loxodonta africana oxyotis Feb 2 4. TOrit Loxodonta africana oxyotis Dec 4, 8 TOrit Loxodonta africana oxyotis Dec l?t Lokila Chameleo g. gracilis Oct (SWS)

King (1926) listed Equatoria Province without localities and his specimen vials include no further data. The nymph from a chameleon was identified by Dr. G. Theiler.

DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN

Although it may have been reasonable to expect that A. tholloni occurs on elephants in Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Province and on the west bank of Equatoria Province, no specimens have been collected to indicate its presence in these places. Ticks from several elephants shot near Yirol and Kenisa in Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Provinces in 1911, 1953, and 1954, have all been R. simus simus, R. simus Senegalensis, or intergrades of these two subspecies.

DISTRIBUTION A. tholloni occurs through much of tropical Africa, wherever the African elephant, Loxodonta africana subspp., is found, except

possibly along the northern and southern margins of the host's range.

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