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Figures 162 and 163, dorsal and ventral views
A, Q, genital area. B to D, Q, genital area outline and profile. B, unengorged. C, partly engorged. D, fully engorged.
HYALOMMA IROMETARII Koch, 1844.
THE CAMEL HYALOMMA
NOTE: Numerous early literature references to "H. aegyptium" apply in whole or part to H. dromedarii, but without # vidual author's material it is impossible to state the exact Species. In the pre-Delpy period, the name H. dromedarii was frequently used for Hyaloma ticks from cameIs, but the possibility that several species may have been included under this name indicates that caution should be exercised before it is assumed that all early references to Hyalomma ticks on camels refer to H. dromedarii. The various "subspecies" of H. dromedarii, now considered invalid, and the few known synonyms of this species are noted below in the section on distribution. No type specimens conforming to present concepts for this species are available (see Feldman-Muhsam 1954) but since species criteria are now well defined, substitute type specimens should be selected and so designated in an established collection.
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
Hyalomma dromedarii ranges extensively north of 12°N. latitude but is entirely absent in the south of the Sudan. The camel hyalomma has not been previously recorded from the Sudan, but earlier references to H. aegyptium undoubtedly refer in part to H. dromedarii.
Localities from which specimens have been seen (all from camels unless otherwise specified) are:
Northern: Ed Damer and Shendi (camels and bulls; SVS). Berber (camels and horses; SVS). Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamed, Atbara, Ed Damer (camels and cattle; HH).
Khartoum: Khartoum and Omdurman (common on domestic animals, especially camels; SVS, SGC, HH).
Kassala: Kassala (camels and cattle; SVS). Port Sudan (cattle and horses; SVS). Tokar (donkeys; SVS).
Darfur: Nyala (SVS). Muhagariya (donkeys, camels, horses, and cattle; SVS). Zalingei (camels, goats, and horses; SVS).
Kordofan: El Obeid (camels and cattle; SVS). "Northern Kordofan"(SWS). Umm Indiraba (cattle; Sws). "Western Kordofan" (sheep; SVS).
Blue Nile: Wad Medani (cattle and camels; HH). Hassa Heissa (Kohl's det., G. B. Thompson, correspondence).
H. dromedarii is common wherever camels occur: in southern Russia (Turkemia, southern Tadzhikistan and Uzbekistan)*, and in the Far, Middle, and Near East. In Africa, it is found in North Africa, in the transitional belt just south of the great northern deserts, in the eastern and coastal lowlands as far south as the Somalilands, and in northeastern Kenya. Small introduced populations have been found in the Union of South Africa and in Southwest Africa, but whether. they now survive is unknown. In some areas, e.g. Anatolia, the camel hyalomma feeds on other hosts since camels are now considerably less common than heretofore. The distribution of this species has been mapped by the American Geographical Society (1954). It is of interest to note that within the range of H. dromedarii, from the Eastern Desert of Egypt to Afghanistan, there exists a more localized but highly distinctive parasite of bactrian, or two-humped, camels, H. schulzei Olenev, 1931 (see page 525), which also attacks dromedaTTE=
*Pomerantzev (1950) lists the synonymous "H. asiaticum" from deserts and semideserts of southern and eastern Transcaucasia and a considerable part of Kazkhstan. In the south its distribution extends to the boundaries of the Soviet Union, embracing a considerable part of Turkmenia, Uzbekstan, and Tadzhiskstan; also Iran and central Asia.
Note: All references below are to "H. dromedarii" unless otherwise specified.
OUILYING ISLANDS CANARY ISLANDS (As H. d. canariensis: Schulze and SchTottke 1930. As H. g. dromedarii; Kratz IX0).
NORTH AFRICA: MOROCCO (Lavier 1923. Blanc, Bruneau, Martin, and Maurice IQ2.3. Blanc, Martin, and Bruneau 1949). ALGERIA (As H. aegyptium dromedarii and as H. a. margaropoides: Senevet 1922B). Türst"(p555-135..."Tonelli for eitf # Colas-Belcour 1931. Colas-Belcour and Rageau 1951). LIBYA (Franchini and Cadeddu 1927. Franchini 1927, 1928B, l929A,B,E. Stella 1938C. Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A, 1932A,C,D,1935. Gaspare l933. As H. anatolicum zavattarii: Tonelli-Rondelli 1935. Stella 1938C. Kratz ISZU).TEGYFT(Koch lö44. Nagaty 1947. Taylor, Mount, Hoogstraal, and Dressler 1952. Wassif 1954).
WEST AFRICA: FRENCH WEST AFRICA (Blanc, Martin, and Bruneau 1949.TWITHERST1955).
EAST AFRICA: SUFAN (Hoogstraal 1954B. The "H. dromedarii f. leptosoma" attributed to Schulze by Kratz 1940, on the "basis of material from Sudanese cattle, represents weak, poorly developed individuals of H. dromedarii, H. excavatum, or H. impeltatum; it is most likely the Tast-named species).
ETHIOPIA (Stella 1940). ERITREA (As H. tunesiacum ganorai: Tonelli-Rondelli 1932C. Stella 1940. Kratz • H-: dromedarii: Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. As H. dromedarii: Niro T935). TFREHCH SOMALILAND (Hoogstraal 1953B).TITALIANTSCMALILAND (Pavesi 1884A. Paoli 1916. Tonelli-Rondelli 1926A,1935. Franchini 1929C. Niro 1935. Stella 1939A, 1940). BRITISH SOMALILAND (Specimens from camels at Las Anod in BMNH collections; HH det.).
KENYA / Lewis' (1931B,1934) H. dromedarii from the Rift Valley and from the Masai Reserve are misidentifications (material checked by HH). H. . dromedarii does, however, occur in the arid Northern Frontier Province (material sent to the writer by Miss J. B. Walker for determination). This species has been reported by Daubney (1937) and Mulligan (1938) without further details except that the material had been identified by Schulze.7
ATANGANYIKA specimens identified by E. A. Lewis as H. dromedarii have been reported by Cornell (1936). This improbable record should be verified by checking the material.7
ASOUTHERN AFRICA: Although southern Africa is out, of the normal range of H. Gromedarii. Theiler (correspondence) has material of this species from camels introduced into the Vryburg and Gordonia districts on the old camel patrol route with headquarters at Rietfontein on the border of the Union and Southwest Africa. Another collection is from the ears of a camel at Okalanga in the extreme west of Ovamboland, Southwest Africa. This material was collected between 1939 and 1942, before the discontinuance of the camel corps. Whether H. dromedarii survives in these localities is not known./ *
NEAR EAST: PALESTINE (Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and FeldmanIfuhsam T926, 1948. Feldman-Muhsam 1948). YEMEN (Sanborn and Hoogstraal 1953. Hoogstraal, ms.). IRAQ (Khayyat and Gilder 1947. Hoogstraal, ms.). TRANSJORDAN, SAUDI ARABLA, and ADEN (#33 straai, mss.j." I:AN (i.elpy ió36.15%,19.6A,1349,B,C. Delpy and Gouchey l937. Nemenz 1953. As H. yakimovi persiacum: Olenev l931A,C. As H. yakimovi; £ 1532-TET. delpyi: Schulze 1936D). (Koch 1844. Kratz 1940. Kurtpinar 1954. Mimioglu l954. Common throughout central and eastern Anatolia, even where camels have recently become scarce; rare in western Anatolia: Hoogstraal, ms.).
RUSSIA: As H. asiaticum or H. a. asiaticum: Galuzo l935. Pomerantzev 1937." Bogoroditsky and Bernadskaia 1938. Bernadskaia 1939B,C. Chumakov, Petrova, and Sondak 1945. Pervomaisky 1947. Markov, Gildenblat, Kurchatov, and Petunin l948. Olenev 1950. Pomerantzev 1950. Rementsova 1953. Pavlovsky, Pervomaisky, and Chagin 1954. Tselishcheva 1954. Petrisheheva 1955. Zhmaeva, Pchelkina, Mishchenko, and Karulin 1955. Serdyukova 1955.
As H. asiaticum caucasium Pomerantzev : in Pomerantzev,
Matikashvily, and Lototsky T20. Pomerantzev 1950.
As H. dromedarii: Yakimov 1923. Olenev l929B. Pomerantzev 1934,1950. Pavlovsky and Pomerantzev 1934. Kurchatov 1941. Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940. Pavlovsky 1940. Chumakov, Petrova, and Sondak l9/.5. Alfeev 1948, 195l. Pervomaisky l949.