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Figures l66 to 167, d, dorsal and ventral views
Figures 168 to 169, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q genital area. B to D, Q genital area outline and profile. B, unengorged. C, partly engorged. D, fully engorged.

HYALOMMA EXCAVATUM
TENEETen Specimens

- 435

[graphic]

HYALCMMA EXCAVATUM Koch, 1844.

(Figures 166 to 169)

THE SMALL HYALOMMA

NOTE: Schulze and his co-workers employed the name E. savignyi (Gervais 1844) for this tick, and following their usual practice appended a variety of subspecific names to it. References to H.

depressum, H. lusitanicum subspp., H. # subspp., and H." # icephaloides also apply to H. excavatum. The name H. anatolicum, as used by Russian and French workers 9 appli es to H. excavatum.

For a list of synonyms, see Delpy (1949B, pp. 475-577).

Adler and Feldman-Muhsam (1948) and Feldman-Muhsam, following Schulze's lead, applied the name H. savignyi in studies of H. excavatum. After examining Koch's type specimens, Feldman Muhsam agreed with Delpy that H. excavatum is the proper name for this tick. This is accepted as a final decision.

DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN

H. excavatum is moderately common in northern Sudan and in the northern parts of central Sudan. No records from Darfur Province are available. The small hyalomma is generally considerably less numerous in the Sudan than in Egypt. It shows a strong predilection for horses, even in areas where other domestic animals are present in large numbers.

The following are data for material seen:

Northern: Shendi (bulls, donkeys, and horses; SVS). Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamed, Atbara, and Shendi (camels, cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, and sheep, HH).

Khartoum: Khartoum, Omdurman, and Shambat (camels, horses,

donkeys, cattle, goats, sheep, and dogs, SWS; Gordon College collection; HH).

Kassala: Kassala (goats, horses, cattle, and camels; SVS). Port Sudan (cattle, donkeys, and horses; SVS). Sinkat (horses; SVS). Tokar (cattle, horses, and donkeys; SVS).

Darfur: No records.
Kordofan: El Obeid (horses and sheep; SVS).

Blue Nile: Wad Medani (camels and horses; HH). Hassa Heissa (camels; G. B. Thompson, correspondence).

DISTRIBUTION

H. excavatum is common throughout northern Africa, and ranges through the Near East, Asia Minor and southern Russia to India. It is abundant locally in southern Europe, but is particularly numerous in Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, and southern Russia.

In Africa, H. excavatum ranges along the northern and northeastern littoral, a continuous belt characterized by less than ten inches of rainfall per annum. Its southeastern limit is Somalia. The Sudan has been invaded by this parasite possibly both via the Nile from Egypt and via the Red Sea coast.

The distribution of H. excavatum has been mapped by the American Geographical Society (1954).

All references below are to H. excavatum unless otherwise noted.

ATLANTIC OCEAN # CANARY ISLANDS (Nuttall lot 3226 in BMNH; H.H. diet. "As H. depressum: Schulze 1919. As H. lusitanicum cicatricosum: 3:# and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1920).

NORTH AFRICA: MOROCCO (Blanc, Bruneau, Martin, and Maurice 1948. Blanc and Bruneau 1953,1954,1955. As H. lusitanicum: Blanc and Bruneau 1949).

ALGERIA (As H. l. lusitanicum: Senevet 1922B, 1925, 1928A,B, 1937. Senevet and Rossi 1925. Kratz 1940. d'Arces 1952. As

H. lusitanicum berberum: Senevet l'922B. As H. lusitanicum algericum: "Senevet I928A. As H. savignyi; Sergent and Pöncet #13: Sergent and co-workers #. employed the name H. lusitanicum at one time or another. As H. lusitanicum

ălgericum: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. aegyptium imErassum: Senevet 1922B). -

TUNISIA (As H. tunesiacum: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. tunesiacum tunesiacum; Kratz 1940. As H. lusitanicum depressum: "Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 19.C." As H. usitanicum algericum: Colas-Belcour 1931. As H. excavatum: Colas Belcour and Rageau 1951).

LIBYA (As H. depressum: Franchini 1927, 1929E. As H. tunesiacum # Tonelli-Rondelli 1932C. As H. anatolicum: ToneLTIRondeIII:32D. As H. fezzanensis: Tonelli-RonderH 1935. Stella 1938C. Kratz 1940. Numerous specimens in Hoogstraal collection).

EGYPT (As H. excavatum sp. nov.: Koch 1844. As H. rhipicephaloides: Neumann 1901, 1911. Schulze 1919,1921,1936F. atz # As H. illum alexandrinum: Schulze 1919. As H. savignyi savignyi; Kratz . As H. excavatum: Daubney and Said # #ly in part confused with H. impeltatum. Taylor, Mount, Hoogstraal, and Dressler 1952). "

EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Taylor, Mount, Hoogstraal, and Dressler 1952.THoogstraal 1954B).

ERITREA (Specimens from several localities in HH collection. Apparently not reported under any known synonym by Italian workers; material probably differently identified by them). FRENCH SCMALLLAND (Hoogstraal 1953D). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (As H. lusitanicum: Franchini 1927,1929C,E. Niro 1935. As H. somalicum: Tonelli: Rondelli 1935. Stella 1939A, 1940. Kratz 1940).

?KENYA: H. anatolicum, a synonym of H. excavatum has been reported in various notes by Lewis, and by Daubney (1937), Mulligan (1938), and Yalvac (1939). This name derives from material identified by Schulze. Although it would not be surprising to find isolated populations in northeastern Kenya, recent workers have not encountered it and earlier specimens referred to this species are not available.7

NEAR EAST: PALESTINE (As H. anatolicum: Bodenheimer 1937. Kratz 1940. As H. rhipicephaloides Neumann 1901,1911. Schulze 1921,1936F. Kratz #s H. savignyi: Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and Feldman-Muhsam 1:###eldman-Muhsam l947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951A. As H. excavatum: Feldman-Muhsam l954. As H. tunesiacum: Bodenheimer 1937). •

SYRIA and LEBANON (Hoogstraal, ms.). IRAQ (As H. aegyptium mesopotamium: Schulze 1919. Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. savignyi mesopotamium: Kratz 1940. As H. excavatum: Hubbard #.#, ms.). "ARABIA" (As H. pusillum: " Schulze 1919). TRUCIAL CMAN, YEMEN, ADEN, SAUDI A'. straal,

mss.). IRAN (Delpy 1946B,1949C,1952). AFGHANISTAN (Anastos 1954. Hoogstraal, ms.).

TURKEY (As H. illus: Vogel 1927. As H. excavatum: Kurt pinar l954. *Mi: oglu 1954. One of the most common ticks on the Anatolian steppes: Hoogstraal, ms. As H. lusitanicum: Yasarol 1954). •-

CYPRUS / The H. savignyi exsul of Schulze and Schlottke (1930), attributed by Delpy (1949B) to H. marginatum (= H. savignyi of Delpy), appears rather to be H. excava um; see PP- # of Kratz (1940) 7.

EUROPE: PORTUGAL (As H. lusitanicum: Koch 1844. Schulze 1919." Kratz 1940).

SPAIN (As H. depressum: Schulze 1919. Gil Collado 1948A. As H. excavatum: De Prada, Gay, and Llorente 1950. De Prada, Gil Collado, and Mingo Alsina 1951. As H. lusitanicum: Gil Collado 1936,1948A. Kratz 1940. As H. Tusitanicum algericum: Jordano Barea 1951. NOTE: H. depressum is considered to be a synonym of H. excavatum, but the species called H. depressum by Gil Collado 1923A is one that cannot readily be #ed).

FRANCE (As H. excavatum: Brumpt and Chabaud 1947. Brumpt 1949. Buttner 1949. Colas-Belcour and Rageau 1951. Chabaud and Choquet 1953). ITALY (As H. lusitanicum: Schulze 19360. . Tonelli-Rondelli 1938. Kratz 1940). GREECE (As H. anatolicum: Kratz 1940. Enigk 1947. Pandazis 1947).

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