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NOTE:

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ollowed this precedent. range, H. truncatum, was referred to by this school as H. A few Russian synonyms are listed in the distribution section below, but contemporary Soviet usage concerning the nomenclature of this tick appears to be incorrect.

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H. rufi Delpy, and F# rufipes under the name H. # of the 1900s identiff impressum and many British and some Italian workers of t The only other African species of wide

tium.

HYALCMMA RUFIPES Koch, 1844.

(Figures 182 to 185)

THE HATRY HYALOMMA

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ipes is a most distinctive tick although Schulze, sam in their earlier reports confused H. impressum.

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H. Fufipes is widely spread in the Sudan but is numerous only

in the semiarid central area.

The following are localities from

which specimens (all from cattle unless otherwise noted) have been

Seen:

Bahr El Ghazal: Galual-Nyang Forest (Very common on buffalos and giraffes; SVS, HH. The absence of this tick on the numerous tiang examined in this area is notable). Aliab (buffalos; SVS). Lau £ Lake Nyubor, Boro, Khor Shammam, and near Raga (SVS). Yirol (horses; SVS).

Upper Nile: Bor, Ler, and Fangak (SVS). Malakal (HH).

Blue Nile: Common at Wad Medani (HH). Abu Zor, Hosh, near Ethiopian border, and Lake Ras Amer (camels and cattle; SGC).

Kordofan: "Western Jebels" and Umm Inderaba (SVS).

Darfur: Nyala, Zalingei, Radom, Sibdo, Muhagariya, and Sahafa (common on camels, cattle, sheep, and horses; SVS).

Kassala: Kassala (camels and cattle; SVS). Port Sudan (SVS).

Khartoum: Khartoum: Numerous specimens have been collected from sheep, goats, and horses, but few from cattle (HH). At the Khartoum quarantine station many adults are found on Darfur and Kordofan cattle. The Sudan Government collection contains a series of adults reared from nymphs from a kite, Milvus migrans, by H.H. King, 20 September 1922.

Northern: Shendi (camels and donkey; SVS). Wadi Halfa (camels; SSC, HH).

DISTRIBUTION

H. rufipes is widely distributed in many drier parts of Africa but it is quite localized and seldom very common in any locality. The hairy hyalomma is not known from many of the more westerly areas of Africa. It is present in the Yemen (Southwestern Arabia); and in North Africa occurs in Egypt and Libya but is not known further West on the Mediterranean littoral.

Elsewhere, H. rufipes occurs in Palestine, Iraq, Eastern Ana

tolia, and Russia (Transcaucasia, Astrakhan, Kazakhstan). Soviet workers find H. rufipes in such small numbers and in such scattered

localities that Pomerantzev (1950) believes its presence in Russia is due to small local populations established from nymphs from migrating birds. Schulze (1918) reported a Macedonian specimen (as H. impressum) that may have been imported on a bird.

This distributional picture is indeed unique, and it may be surmised that H. rufipes is a species of the Ethiopian Faunal Region that has extended its range beyond these confines as a result of transportation by migrating birds, which are important hosts of immature stages (page 486).

Note: All records below are for H. rufipes or H. r. rufipes; other combinations are so stated.

NORTH AFRICA: EGYPT (Common on domestic animals in the Nile Valley only; also arrives at the Cairo abattoir on cattle from the Sudan and East Africa: Hoogstraal, ms. See immature HOSTS below). LIBYA (Scattered populations on Mediterranean littoral: Hoogstraal, ms.).

WEST AFRICA: NIGERIA (As H. impressum rufipes: Unsworth
Gambles

1949, 1952. As H. impressum subsp. ; • As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956. Material from Katagum and Oban in BMNH collections; H.H. det.). FRENCH WEST AFRICA (As H. savignyi impressa Girard

and Rousselot 1945. Rousselot 1946. As H. rufipes glabrum: Rousselot 1951 and Williers 1955; it is assumed # # do not actually refer to H. turanicum. Rousselot 1953B. Theiler

1956).

CENTRAL AFRICA: FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA (Rousselot 1953B). BELGIANTCONGO (Rare: Theiler and Robinson 1954. Theiler 1956).

EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Hoogstraal 1954B. Feldman-Muhsam 1954. Theiler IS35).

ETHIOPIA (As H. aegyptium impressum f. typica: Stella 1939A, B,1940. As H. rufipes: el. Ler" ERTREA (As H. impressum impressum: Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. As H. impressum rufipes: Niro T355. Numerous specimens in BMNH and collections). FRENCH SOMALILAND (Hoogstraal 1953D). BRITISH SCMALILAND (As

H. grossum: Pocock 1900. As H. aegyptium impressum: Stella 1938A, A. Numerous specimens from camels # BMNH collections; H.H. det.). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (As H. aegyptium impressum: Paoli 1916. Tonelli-Rondelli 1926A." F#ni 1929C. Niro 1935. Stella 1938A, 1940. As H. impressum.rufipes: Tonelli-Rondelli 1935. Stella 1940. ######HH collections. See NOTE under EAST AFRICA for H. impressum, p. 463).

KENYA ATMaterials identified and variously reported by E. A. Lewis as H. aegyptium impressum, H. impressum albiparmatum, or H. rufipes are # a mixture of "H. truncatum and H. " rufipes; sometimes H. # and H. albi tum are included under these names in Lewis"COTLections now # # British Museum (Natural History) (H.H. det.). As H. rufipes: Binns (1951,1952). Theiler (1956). Note: In addition to the probability of mixed species in reports by Lewis, the synonymy of the following names

is uncertain. As H. aegyptium: Brassey-Eawards (1932). As H. #" Daubney d:# H. impressum rufipes: Daubney

": (Wilson 1953. Theiler 1956. See HOSTS below). TANGANYIKA (As H. aegyptium impressum: Cornell 1936. As H. Fufipes: Theiler #########©

SOUTHERN AFRICA: *SOUTH AFRICA" (Koch 1844. As H. impressum rufipes: Schulze and Schlottke 1930).

ANGOLA: Absent: Sousa Dias (1950). Theiler (1956). NORT # (Matthysse # Theiler and Robinson 1954. Theiler 1956). SOUTHERN RHODESLA (As H. ae ium impressum: Jack 1921, 1928, 1937,1942. As H. rufi ###er # NYASALAND (No available £5:#10: (As H. impressum rufipes: Theiler 1943B. Santos Dias £ # 1955. As H. rufipes: Theiler 1956). BECHUANALAND (Specimens from Ghanzi in # collections: H.H. det. Theiler #: Swazil. No (Uncommon. Theiler i356. Southwest AFRICA

H. impressum rufipes: Schulze 1936A. As H. impressum:

Schulze # As H. #: Theiler l956. #ov).

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (The H. # of Dönitz 1910B and of Cooley 1934 apparently includes H. truncatum and

H. rufipes. As H. aegyptium impressum: Howard 1908. Bedford #13: ATexander, Mason, and Neitz 1939. McIntyre 1939. du Toit 1942, 1947. du Toit and Mönnig 1942. As H. aegyptium: Clark 1933. As H. impressum rufipes: Theiler 1943B. As # rufipes: Thorburn 1952. # 1957: #le: 1956). ISLAND GROUPS: MADAGASCAR (Hoogstraal 1953E. Theiler 1956). COMOREST(Kratz IV.0; cf. immature HOSTs below).

NEAR EAST: TURKEY (Rare in eastern Anatolia: Hoogstraal, ms.). PALESTINE (As H. impressum, rare: Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and :* i:# YEMEN and IRAQ (Common: Hoogstraal, IOS • ©

RUSSIA (As H. aequipunctatum: Olenev 1931A,C. Galuzo and Bespalov I-535. As H. impressum: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky l940. As H. marginatum impressum: Pomerantzev 1946. Tselishcheva 1953. As H. plumbeum impressum: Pomerantzev 1950).

NOTE: The record of H. impressum rufipes from China (Chodziesner 1924) probably refers to a heavily punctate H. marginatum (Kratz 1940). H. rufipes has been stated to occur in Portugal by Kaplan and Hulse in their review of prevalence of Q fever in Europe; this apparent error derives from the report by Fonesca, Pinto, Colacao, Oliveira, Branco, da Gama, Franco, and Lacerda (1951) that "H. rufipes glabrum" is associated with Q fever there. This is assumed to #: o H. marginatum.

HOSTS

Domestic cattle appear to be the most common hosts of this tick. They are mentioned by practically every author and are the most frequent hosts of specimens in museum collections. Other common domestic hosts are horses, sheep, and goats. Bedford (1932B) states that dogs and cats are also infested; specimens from these hosts are present in British Museum (Natural History) and HH collections. In semidesert areas, camels are frequently parasitized (Sudan records; HH mss.; numerous Somaliland specimens in BMNH collections; Hoogstraal 1953D). Among wild animals, the buffalo and giraffe are common hosts, as is the rhinoceros. Antelopes and certain birds are less common hosts

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