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EAST AFRICA: "EAST AFRICA" (As H. planum and H. zambesianum, Schulze and Schlottke 1930). -

SUDAN (As H. aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. Kratz 1940. As H. eSSun eipes: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. r #

As H. transiens: Oogs

ETHIOPIA (As H. impressum transiens and H. impressum initide: Stella 1939B,1940. As # aegyptium impressum transiens' Chodziesner 1924). ERITREA (As H. impressum transiens: "Tonel Ti-Rondelli 1930A, 1932C. Niro 1935." s# 1939A, 1970. Common in many parts of Eritrea: HH). FRENCH SCMALILAND (As H. transiens: Hoogstraal 1953D). BRITISH SOMALILAND (Numerous specimens from camels in BMNH collections; HH det.). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (As H. aegyptium

[graphic]

impressum: Paoli 1916. As H. aegyptium impressum form transiens: #nd: 1926A,1935." s# See HöSTS below).

KENYA / As H. impressum transiens: Daubney (1937). As H. transiens: 4: d:# As H. impressum near planum. " Fotheringham and Lewis (1937). As H. truncatum: Fel uhsam (1954). Hoogstraal (1954C). See also H. albiparmatum, p. See HOSTS below. ->

H. lewisi Schulze (1936E) is a synonym of H. truncatum and not of H. excavatum as stated by Delpy (1949E); it is also not a '#'as stated by Schulze (1936E). Schulze-identified Imatel' of "H. lewisi" consists of small, stunted, misshapen H. truncatum (seen by HH); in this Feldman-Muhsam (1954) is in agreement. Kratz (1940) also referred to H. lewisi from Kenya. See page

Lewis (see bibliography) mentions Hyalomma ticks under a variety of names. Most specimens in his large collections now in British Museum (Natural History) are H. truncatum among which H. rufipes is frequently mixed and other species are sometimes # The H. truncatum specimens had been identified by Lewis as H. impressum, H. dromedarii, and H. # this confusion is understandable due to the unsatisfactory information available in literature at that time.7

UGANDA (As H. impressum transiens: Wilson 19500. As H. transiens: Wilson Common in many Uganda collections

studied by Theiler and by HH).

TANGANIIRA / As H. planum and H. aegyptium albiparmatum: Schulze (1919). "As H. ae ium impressum transiens: Odziesner (1924). As H. impressum transiens and as H. Lewisi: Schulze

(1936E). Kratz (1 • e KEN.Y.A. above. As H. aegyptium: Cornell 1936. 7As H. impressum planum f. r:# Schulze and Schlottke (1930) #&# the synonymy of this name is uncertain but it is suspected to apply to H. truncatum. See HOSTs below.7 •-

SouTHERN AFRICA ANGCLA (As H. impressum transiens: Sousa Dias T950. "Santos Dias 1950C. As H. #: Theiler and

Robinson 1954. Santos Dias 1950C noted that "H. savignyi" had been reported from Angola by A. Morais in 1909, and # this may refer to H. truncatum (= H. impressum transiens), MOZAMBIQUE (As H. impressum transiens: # 19.3B."Santos Dias 1947B #######ro 1955. As H. truncatum: Theiler 1956.

NORTHERN RHODESIA (As H. transiens: Theiler and Robinson 1954. Matthysse 1954. See HOSTS below. SOUTHERN RHODESIA (As

H. aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. As H.

ae # Lawrence 1939. As H. a. aegyptium: Jack 1942.

As # truncatum: Theiler 1956." See # below). NYASALAND

(As H. Erasum transiens: Wilson 1943,1946. As H. impressum: #

Wilson
SOUTHWEST AFRICA (As H. aegyptium impressum transiens:

Chodziesner 1924. As H. impressum transiens: Kratz 1940. As H.

aegyptium aegyptium: Bedfo B. As H. transiens: Fiedler." # See low). SWAZILAND (As H. a. H:#tium: Bedford 1932B. As H. truncatum: Theiler 1956). BEC (As H.

aegyptium impressum transiens: Chodziesner 1924. As H. trun

# # T956TZETSUTOLAND: Absent; Theiler (1955): 7 UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (The # ae tium" of Dönitz 1910B

and of Cooley l934 apparently includes © # and H.

truncatum. As H. a. ae ium: Lounsbury l TV. "Theiler T305ETS06. Howard #2: 1920, 1926,1927, 1932B, 1936.

Nieschulz and du Toit 1937. P. J. du Toit 1931. Finlayson,
Grobler, and Smithers 1940. R. du Toit 1942A, B, 1947A. As H.

impressum impressum: Theiler l943B. As H. transiens: Erasmus # #. Neitz 1954. As H. truncatum: " Feldman

Muhsam 1954. Theiler 1956. As H. aegypticum (sic): Gear 1954. See HOSTS below).

"SHORES OF THE ZAMBESI" (As H. Zambesiacum; Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1940). •

ARABIA: YEMEN (Hoogstraal, ms.).

CUTLYING ISLANDS: MADAGASCAR (Recently introduced: Hoogstraal 1953E. Theiler 1956). SEYCHELLES (Desai 1941; not stated whether introduced or established). ZANZIBAR (As H. aegyptium: Aders 1917).

HOSTS

Domestic cattle and goats are the most common hosts of H. truncatum but other large wild or domestic mammals may be infested. Wild carnivores are seldom recorded as hosts. Rarely, small mammals, birds, or tortoises are also attacked. Immature stages are definitely known from birds and hares but most published remarks concerning these stages should be accepted with reservation because of questionable identity.

Adults

Domestic animals: Cattle (Bedford 1932B, Schulze 1936C, Fotheringham and Lewis 1937, Sousa Dias 1950, Wilson 1943,1946, 1950B, Rousselot 1951, Rageau 1951, 1953, Santos Dias 1953B. Sudan records above. Numerous specimens in various collections examined for the present study). Goats (Bedford 1932B, Rousselot 1951, Hoogstraal l953D, E. Numerous BMNH specimens. Sudan records £ Sheep (Bedford 1932B, Wilson 1950B, Sousa Dias 1950, Rousselot l95l, Hoogstraal 1953D. BMNH specimens. Sudan records above). Camels (Aders 1917, Rousselot 1951. Numerous BMNH specimens from British Somaliland. Hoogstraal, Yemen ms. Sudan records above). Horses (Bedford 1932B, Sousa Dias 1950, Rageau 1953. Sudan records above). Donkeys (Bedford 1932B, Rousselot 1951).

Mules, dogs, and rarely cats (Bedford 1932B). Dog (BMNH specimens from Canary Islands, Eritrea, and Transvaal).

Wild antelopes: Tiang (Sudan records above). Roan antelope (Bedford 19325, #ey 1934, Tonelli-Rondelli 1930A. BMNH specimens from Nigeria. Sudan records above). "Ozanna grandicornis" (Santos Dias 1952D). Wildebeest (Matthysse 1952. &# specimens from South Africa). Nyasa wildebeest (J. B. Walker specimens from Tanganyika). Lichtenstein's hartebeest (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B). Brindled gnu or blue hartebeest (Bedford 1932B, Santos Dias 1953B). Sassaby or bastard hartebeest (BMNH specimens from South Africa). Eland (Chodziesner 1924, Bedford 1932B, Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1953B. BMNH specimens from Southern Rhodesia, and Southwest Africa. Onderstepoort specimens from South Africa). Greater kudu (Santos Dias 1953B). Bushbuck (MCZ specimens from South Africa). Western defassa waterbuck #" 1953). Gemsbok (Onderstepoort specimens from South AfriCal.) •

Other wild animals: Hedgehog (Bedford 1936). Hares (BMNH specimens from Kenya and Nigeria). Bushpig (Santos Dias 1953B. HH specimens from Eritrea. Sudan records above). Warthog (Santos Dias 1953B, Bedford l932B, Rageau 1953. Numerous BMNH specimens from Kenya and Nigeria. Sudan records above). White or squarelipped rhinoceros, southern race (MCZ specimens). Black or narrowlipped rhinoceros (Schulze 1919, Schulze and Schlottke 1930. BMNH specimens from Kenya). Buffalo (Schulze 1919, Wilson 1950B, Santos Dias 1952D, H, 1953B. MCZ and BMNH specimens from Kenya. J. B. Walker specimens from Tanganyika. Sudan records above). Dwarf buffalo (Rageau 1953). Giraffe (Chodziesner 1924. MCZ specimens from Kenya. BMNH specimens from Tanganyika. Onderstepoort specimens from Transvaal and Southwest Africa. Numerous Sudan specimens recorded above). Burchell's zebra (Santos Dias 1952D,1953B). Zebra (Matthysse 1954. BMNH specimens from Kenya. Onderstepoort specimens from Northern Rhodesia). Lion and antbear (Wilson 1950B). Leopard (BMNH specimens from Kenya. Onderstepoort specimens from Southern Rhodesia). Jackal and African porcupine (Matthysse 1954. Onderstepoort specimens from Northern Rhodesia).

Reptiles: Tortoise (Sudan records above).

Birds: Cape thick-knee, Burhinops capensis (Bedford 1932B). Ostrich (Id. and in HH collection, # west of Afmadu", Somalia, 1952, Col. D. Davis legit. Ostriches in Southwest Africa (Theiler, correspondence i •

Man: Several specimens from Kataguna and Katagum, Nigeria, and from Kenya in BMNH collections (HH det.).

Immature Stages

Nymphs on dogs and hedgehogs (Rousselot 1951). Larvae and nymphs sometimes on cattle, sheep, and goats (Fotheringham and Lewis 1937). Nymphs on hares (Wilson 1946,1950B, Sousa Dias 1950. Fiedler 1953). Larvae from a hornbill, Tokus flavirostris leucomelas (Santos Dias 1952D). "Immatures" from a pied crow, Corvus albus albus in Transvaal (Theiler, correspondence).

BIOLOGY

Life Cycle

Unstudied. Wilson (1946) was unable to rear this species in Nyasaland.

Ecology

The African hyalomma, another xerophilic member of this genus, obviously differs somewhat from H. rufipes in ecological requirements but the limiting factors are not yet recognized clearly enough for proper elucidation. As stated above, the distribution of H. truncatum is strictly limited to the Ethiopian Faunal Region and its range is widespread and fairly continuous within these confines except in heavily forested and high rainfall areas. Wilson (1953) includes H. truncatum in the A. gemma - R. pravus (= R. neavi) association (see page

) that occurs where annual rainfall seldom exceeds 25 inches.

In southern Africa (Theiler 1956), the range of H. truncatum differs from that of H. rufipes in that the former is absent at higher elevations with high rainfall but present in cooler lowland winter rainfall areas. In regions with 25 inches of annual rainfall populations are rare and isolated. In Equatorial Africa, however, the African hyalomma does tolerate this and a slightly higher range of rainfall (HH). Here a combination of factors including higher temperatures, long dry seasons,

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