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Coxa I simple, with two wide, short spurs from posterior margin. Scutum smooth, shiny with few, scattered, large punctations; festoons unfused; lacking lateral grooves and caudal depression. Adanal shields large, much like those of H. hussaini; subanal shields minute. TTortoise parasite; Mediterranean and Black Sea areas, southern Russia to western Middle East). (Subgenus Hyalomaste)............H. AnyFTIIM Figures 19C and T9I

Coxa I deeply divided into narrow external branch and wider internal branch. Festoons partly fused. With short or long lateral grooves. Adanal shields not so large and wide as above. Subanal shields typically larger than above (frequently though abnormally as small as above). (Palearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian Faunal Regions). (Subgenus Hyalome).............................................3

Center of subanal shields characteristically exterior of the axis of the adanal shields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Center of subanal shields characteristically in line with the axis of the

adanal shields (frequently laterally
displaced when greatly engorged)............................6

Spiracular plates of female type, with short, blunt "tail". (Camel parasite, Iran to Egypt; large size, up to 8 m. long).................................H. SCHULZEI Figures 202 and 203

Spiracular plates of normal male
type, with long "tail". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Lateral grooves reaching scutal midlength; scutum largely covered by small and medium-size punctations. (Medium-size; Near East; North, West, and coastal East Africa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. IMPETATUM Figures 17O and IT

Lateral grooves confined to posterior third of scutum; scutum smooth with few, scattered, usually large punctations; posterior grooves characteristically marked. (Large ticks of camels wherever, these animals now or recently occurred).........................................H. DROMEDARII Figures 152 and TE3

Lateral grooves confined to posterior third of scutum; scutum almost impunctate except in caudal depressed area. (Usually small ticks; Mediterranean Basin, Near and Middle East; East African coastal areas and northern Sudan).............................................H. EXCAVATUM Figures l

Lateral grooves reaching at least scutal midlength (if specimen is heavily punctate, grooves may be obscure).................................7

Scutum smooth, shiny with rare, scattered
large punctations; lateral grooves long
and usually very distinct; posterior
grooves well marked; legs usually not
ringed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. DETRIUM"
Figures 160 and Töl

*A closely related "form" of uncertain taxonomic status, "H. scupense", with some biological and morphological characters

ering from those of typical H. marginatum, occurs in parts
#

of the Soviet Union and southeastern

10.

Scutum either densely punctate, ir-
regularly punctate, or lightly punc-
tate except in caudal area where punc-
tations are dense......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

Scutum densely, entirely, and almost
always uniformly covered by puncta-
tions often obscuring the lateral

grooves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Scutum lightly or irregularly punc-
tate, or densely punctate only pos-

teriorly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ll

Scutum strongly narrowed postero-
laterally to form an almost recti-
linear posterior margin. (West
Africa)............................................H. DMPRESSUM

Figures 17 and I75 Scutum bluntly rounded posteriorly...........................10

Circumspiracular area glabrous.
Scutum brownish, punctations not
so dense as in H. rufipes. Legs
with dorsal enamelling on middle

segments of two hind pairs.

(Russia, Middle East, and South
African Karroo)....................................H. TURANICUM

Figures 20A and 205

Circumspiracular area hirsute.
Scutum black, punctations usually
very dense. Leg segments usually
distinctly annulated but lacking
dorsal enamelling. (Near East,
Arabia, Northeast Africa, tropical
and South Africa)....................................H. RuPIPES

Figures 132 and T33

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Lateral grooves long but often not
well marked. Scutum irregularly
punctate, posterior area not stri-
kingly differentiated, posterior

margin bluntly rounded. (Far,

Middle, and Near East, Arabia,

Northwest Africa, rare in North-
east Africa)......................................H. MARGINATUM

Figures 1.73 and I75

Lateral grooves long, distinct,

deeply and cleanly delineated.

Scutum smooth and shiny except

posteriorly where it is densely
punctate, posterior margin usual-
ly rectangular. (Strictly African,
not including North Africa)..................................12

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Genital apron not divided by a
vertical median groove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Coxa I simple, with two wide, short
spurs from posterior margin. Scutum
shiny, smooth, with few scattered,
large, deep punctations. Genital
apron a flat, widely triangular
shield that becomes greatly de-
pressed posteriorly upon engorge-
ment. (Subgenus Hyalomaste)....................H. AECYPTIUM
Figures 192 and 193

Coxa I deeply divided into a narrow
external branch and a wide internal
branch. (Subgenus Hyalome)................................?

Scutum regularly and completely
covered by rather uniform, discrete
punctations of moderate or large

size”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Scutum with few to moderate number
of irregular punctations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

*Exceptional specimens of H. turanicum may lack this aspect. Others of H. marginatum and H. impeitatum may approach this aspect.

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