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Genital apron a wide triangle composed
of a protruding anterior ridge and a
deeply, abruptly depressed, narrower
posterior button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. IMPRESSUM
Figures 175 and I77

Genital apron a wide shield with a
broad posterior margin and not
divided as above. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Circumspiracular area hirsute. Middle segments of two pairs of hind legs lacking dorsal enamelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. RUFIPES

Figures 134 and T35

Circumspiracular area glabrous, or with few hairs. Middle segments of two pairs of hind legs enamelled dorsally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. TURANICUM Figures 205 and 207

Genital apron an elongate triangle
OT circular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Genital apron distinctly wider than
long, a transverse oval, triangle,
OT shield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Genital apron a narrowly pointed triangle with lateral margins definitely longer than dorsal margin; gradually depressed in profile. Scutum usually as wide as or wider than long; with few, scattered large punctations; uncommonly with scattering of smaller punctations; surface frequently rugose. Usually large ticks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. DROMEDARII

Figures 16A and IG5

Genital apron circular or a less narrowly pointed triangle with lateral margins approximating dorsal margin in length. Scutum usually somewhat longer than wide; punctations variable; usually less rugose. Size moderate (except H. schulzei) to

small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

Genital apron a triangle bounded on each side by a lobe; greatly bulging in profile. Scutum usually with sinuous posterior margin, numerous small punctations, and two irregular, submedian rows of large, deep punctations. Usually moderate size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. IMPELTATUM Figures 172 and I75

Genital apron circular or triangular but lacking lateral lobes; greatly bulging or gradually depressed in profile. Scutum usually with very few punctations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Genital apron triangular; gradually depressed except when greatly engorged but never convex in profile. Scutum smooth and shiny with very few, scattered punctations of large size; uncommonly with superficial small punctations. Usually moderate size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. DETRITUM

Figures I60 and ISI

Genital apron small, triangular or circular, convex or bulging in profile. Scutum usually lacking smooth, shiny appearance of H. detritum; few, scattered punctations, those present small or moderate size; almost never large. Usually small size and narrow shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. EXCAVATUM

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Genital apron a transverse oval,
in profile deeply concave poste-
riorly and with a narrow, bulging
lip anteriorly. Scutum usually
smooth and shiny with few scattered
punctations, with or without in-
conspicuous interstitial punctations.
(Ethiopian Faunal Region only).............................il

Genital apron not deeply concave
in profile. (Absent or exceptional
and only peripherally in Ethiopian
Faunal £...'.........................12
Common, widely ranging species
throughout Ethiopian Faunal Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. TRUNCATUM
Figures 133 and T39

Uncommon species, known by small

populations only from Kenya, Tanga

nyika, and Togo. Differentiated

only by association with male. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. ALBIPARMATUM Figures

Genital apron a large, transverse
oval; flat, somewhat protruding,
or convex in profile. Circumspiracular
area usually markedly pilose. Usually
large size. (Palearctic Faunal Region
only).............................................H. SCHULZEI
Figures " Tand

Genital apron a large robust shield;
transversely oval or widely triangular
in outline; strongly bulging in pro-
file; scutum with moderate to numerous

punctations of variable size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. MARGINATU: Figures 13UTERETBI

Figures 190 and 191, d, dorsal and ventral views
Figures 192 and 193, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q, genital area. B to D, genital apron, outline and profile. B, unengorged. C, partly engorged. D, fully engorged.

HYALCMMA AEGYPTIUM Specimens from Land Tortoise, Eastern Anatolia Hoogstraal Collection

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HYALCMMA AEGYPTIUM (Linne, 1758).
(Figures 190 to 193)
THE TORTOISE. HYALOMMA

The much mooted name H. aegyptium has been frequently used as a "catchall" by workers in many countries for a number of species. Consequently much literature referring to #= ticks has been hopelessly confused, even to the present day.

King (1926) lumped all Sudan species under the name H.

aegyptium”, as did most other workers on African and Near Eastern icks of his time. H. aegyptium (Linne, 1758) is now recognized as a distinct parasite of #: in the Mediterranean area and Near East. In Russia it is confined to Crimea, Georgia, Armenia, the Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Turkmen, Uzbek, and Tadzhik (Pomerantzev 1950). It is common in many parts of Asia Minor (Hoogstraal, ms.) and occurs in Afghanistan (Anastos 1954).

The tortoise hyalomma does not occur in the Sudan, elsewhere in tropical or southern Africa, or in Europe away from the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. Although originally described from Egypt, where tortoises are said to have been numerous on the Mediterranean littoral, H. aegyptium apparently is now extinct here. In present-day Egypt, # occur only a few miles east of the Libyan border - extremely rarely as far as seventy miles east of Libya - and in Sinai a few miles west of Palestine. No ticks have been found on recent Egyptian tortoises, except on specimens from Palestine in Cairo pet-shops.

Tortoises are the hosts of predilection of adult H. aegyptium. Exceptionally, lizards, hares, and hedgehogs are attacked. # other mammals may be infested rarely, long lists of various hosts for this tick are all erroneous, based as they are on old records in which all species were lumped under the name H. aegyptium. In

*With reference to reports of "H. aegyptium" from the Sudan, it should be noted that the actual tick species with which O'Farrell (1913A,B), did his interesting work on an entomogenus trypanosome, Crithidia (?Herpetomonas) hyalommae, cannot now be determined.

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