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Anatolia, however, when rearing larvae and nymphs from tick-infested animals, it was found that these stages commonly attack tortoises, lizards #: partridges, man, hares, hedgehogs, and a wide variety of rodents (Hoogstraal, ms.). A number of Russian host records were presented by Olenev (1928B).

The life cycle of "H. aegyptium" described by Nuttall (1915) applies to H. marginatum. # lot l305a in British Museum (Natural History) was used for this study. No material for his lot X (from Rome) can now be located. It appears that the study of the external morphology of each stage and of the bionomics of "H. ae ium" in India (Sharif 1924) applies actually to H. # but this is not certain.

A popular article concerning the actual H. aegyptium has recently appeared in the Illustrated London M.:#. 1950). Based on living ticks arriving in the British Isles on pet-shop tortoises from southern Europe, this account should interest persons who frequently encounter this name promiscuously used in the literature. Distribution data in the Browning paper are from literature references under H. aegyptium, and, therefore, far more extensive than the actual geographic range of this species in nature.

Contempor published reports on disease transmission by ticks # continue to perpetuate the early confusion

In Identification of species in this genus. The tortoise para

*Its, H: # has never been incriminated as a vector or reservoir of pathogenic organisms of man, other mammals, or LI'ClS •

H. aegyptium does, however, transmit two sporozoa to land tortoises # northwestern Africa and in the Near East. These are Haemo arine mauritanice and H. stepanovi (cf. Sergent and Sergen , Laveran and Negre id:#1: and Comte 1905, Laveran and Pettit 1910, Brumpt 1938C; and Laveran 1901, Marzinowsky 1927, Popovici-Baznosano 1901,1906, 1907, and Reichenow 1910). Another parasite from this tick Coelomoplasma # has been briefly described by Brumpt (#

er classification as to group (see also Brumpt 1938E). Further studies on these parasites have not been encountered.

Certain unusual morphological characters of this easily recognized species cause the tortoise hyalomma to be considered in a separate subgenus, Hyalomnasta Schulze, 1930.

H. aeg-yptium ctata Schulze, 1919 (see also Kratz 1940), a name # for a single specimen from Malta and subsequently overlooked by even Schulze himself, is undoubtedly a synonym of # £e:

Pomerantzev (1950) considers Dermacentor rosmari Ass (1935), described from nymphs from walrus in the Kara (White) Sea and said to be the northernmost ticks on record, as a synonym of H. aegyptium. On the basis of the original description and illusrations of D. rosmari, its systematic position is uncertain but this synonymy is hardly convincing.

The synonymous name H. Syriacum Koch, 1844, has frequently been used for the actual H. ae tium. So far as has been determined, H. Syriacum has been # with no other species.

Both sexes can be readily distinguished from key characters provided herein.

Figures l94 and 195, d', dorsal and ventral views
Figures 196 and 197, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q, genital area. B and C, Q, genital area, outline and profile, unengorged.

HYALOMMA ALBIPARMATUM Specimens from cattle, Kenya; from Nuttall lot 3773, exchange, British Museum (Natural History). Hoogstraal collection.

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HYALCMMA ALBIPARMATUM Schulze and Schlottke, 1930
(= H. BRUNNETPARMATIM S. and S., 1930).
(Figures 194 to 197)
THE PARMATED AFRICAN HYALOMMA

H. albiparmatum, presently known only from Kenya, Tanganyika, and Togo, is similar to H. truncatum except that the central fes

toon is differentiated as a parma in the form of a celluloidlike cover of variable size, shape, and color. No constant characters have been discovered for differentiating females of these two species.

Delpy (1949B) considered H. impressum albiparmatum Schulze and #. 1930, #: East Africa, as a Synonym of # #ginatum (= H. savignyi) or questionably of H. truncatum (= H. transiens); The #: H. # of Schulze and

Schlottke (1930) to be a synonym of H. marginatum (= H. savignyi).

Feldman-Muhsam (1954) stated, after examining Kenya laboratoryreared material of H. albiparmatum submitted by J. B. Walker that H. albiparmatum is a synonym of H. truncatum. Dr. Theiler and the writer, er examination of the same material, are convinced that Walker's H. albiparmatum is a distinct genetic entity worthy of full species # It is also apparent from Walker's material and from other series in British Museum (Natural History) collections that H. impressum brunneiparmatum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930, from Togo is a synonym of H. arbiparmatum and not of H. truncatum as stated by Feldman-Muhsam # Miss Walker is " preparing a report on this species for publication in Parasitology. Hosts of the parmated African hyalomma appear to be the same as those of H. truncatum.

British Museum (Natural History) collections contain material from cattle and from a rhinoceros from Zatta Plains, Kajiado, Namanga, and the Masai Reserve, Kenya (HH det.). J. B. Walker (correspondence) has seen specimens from a rhinoceros from Iringa District, Tanganyika, and from a warthog in Chunya District, Tanganyika.

Of f *
. . . . . . .

Figures 198 and 199, d', dorsal and ventral views
Figures 200 and 201, Q, dorsal and ventral views

A, Q, genital area. B to E, Q, genital apron, outline and profile; all unengorged; E dried, contracted specimen.

HYALOMMA HUSSAINI

Specimens from Bihar, India (det. Sharif) (Rocky Mountain Laboratory collection).

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