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Alectoris kakelik kakelik (?= A. graeca falki), Chukar tridge
Coracias garrulus, Roller ersicus, Iranian beeater
Sturnus garis dresseri, Starling
Lanius # Lesser grey shrike
Sylvia Gurruca, Lesser. Whitethroat
# althaea, Hume's lesser whitethroat axicola torquata, Stone chat
Oenanthe #s, White-headed chat
Öenanthe opistoleuca, Strickland's chat
Russian adults feed during the warm period of the year, commencing late in March in the valleys and at the end of April or early in May in the mountains. Maximum infestations occur during the warm summer period. The duration of the life cycle, period of most active attack by larvae, and seasonal dynamics are not completely known. The overwintering period is seven months. Lototsky's experimental observations are as follows: The female
remains quiescent for 28 days between terminating feeding and commencing oviposition. Eggs hatch after 36 days; larvae and nymphs each feed for eight days. Twenty-four days after feeding, nymphs molt to adults. (See also Tselishcheva 1953).
The ecology and distribution of H. turanicum (= H. glabrum) in so: £)"##nt only in the Karroo areas of the eastern Cape, western and southwestern Cape, the Cape midlands, and the Brokenveld of southern Orange Free State, but absent elsewhere in the Union and in Basutoland, Namaqualand, Bushmanland, Bechuanaland, and Southwest Africa. Although this tick exists in areas with as little as 0.5 inches of annual rainfall, it is more common where five to ten inches of rain falls annually. It is absent in areas with over fifteen inches of annual rainfall, in winter rainfall areas, and, with a single exception, where rain is distributed throughout the year. South African cold and heat do not appear to restrict the range of H. turanicum inasmuch as it is found in areas with up to 150 days of frost per year. This is the only Hyaloma in localities where snow occurs in South Africa. Karroo type vegetation areas including those mixed with Mesembrianthemum, sourveld grass, and, to a lesser extent, sweetveld grass support H. turanicum. It is absent in all forests, parklands, grasslands, and other desert thorn, succulent, and grass areas. Adults are active during the summer and in some localities during the entire year.
Pervomaisky (1949) unsuccessfully attempted the rearing of a full Fl generation from parthenogenetic females of H. turanicum.
Neitz (1954) was unable to achieve transmission of the virus of sweating sickness of cattle # South Africa by means ## ) turanicum (= H. rufipes glabrum). As already noted, Delpy (1952 indicated that this # is "not of considerable importance" in transmission of bovine theileriasis, Theileria annulata, in Iran.
The vertical rings of the leg segments of both sexes of H. turanicum are usually not so contrasty as they are in H. rufipes but the middle segments of the two pairs of hind legs show a dorsal enamelling not found in H. rufipes; this is especially distinct in dry specimens. The circumspiracular area of neither
sex is pilose and the scutal punctations are not so dense as in H. rufipes, except in the scapular area. There is some variation in # of scutal punctations and both sexes may resemble exceptionally heavily punctate individuals of H. marginatum; leg characters, however, readily distinguish them. e scutum is usually more leathery and not so black as in H. rufipes. The female genital aperture, although unusually variable, is much like that of H. marginatum (page 478) and considerably different from that of f. rufipes. "The various outlines of the genital apron in available material are illustrated in Figure 207 A to H.
These notes are made from material reared and presented by Dr. G. Theiler and from a small number of field collected specimens from Iran. A more extensive comparative study of larger amounts of reared and field collected specimens is indicated.
Theiler's laboratory rearings show the specific entity of
this species. Consideration of H. turanicum as more closely
related to H. marginatum than to H. rufipes appears justified.
Figures 208 and 209, d, dorsal and ventral views Figures 210 and 2ll, Q, dorsal and ventral views
(Figures 208 to 211)
The exact status of this form is uncertain. Since first mentioned from French Somaliland (Hoogstraal 1953D), a small amount of additional material, all from camels in the Somali biotope, from British Somaliland and Gebel Elba of southeastern Egypt, has been seen. An attempt will be made to obtain living material for rearing studies in order to define the morphological characters and taxonomic position of this form, both sexes of which resemble extreme variations among other species. The consistency with which males and females of this form are found together throughout coastal eastern Africa north of the equator arouses suspicion that this is a distinct genetic entity.
The male subanal shields lie directly posterior of the central axis of the adanal shields; the scutum has characters in common both with heavily punctate H. marginatum and H. impeltatum. The female scutum is also similar to # of both of these species but the genital apron is like that of H. dromedarii although more depressed posteriorly. The outline of this apron in the specimen illustrated (Figure 211) represents the maximum width of this structure observed among available material; in other specimens it is more narrowly and elongately triangular, as in H. dromedarii. The apron is not flanked by two lobes as in H. impeltatum, and its profile differs greatly from that of H. impeltatum.