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Figures 216 and 217, c', dorsal and ventral views Figures 218 and 219, Q, dorsal and ventral views


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DKODES CAVIPALPUS Nuttall and Warburton, 1908 (not 1907).
(Figures 216 to 219)


L N 9 o' EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORD l l Obbo Civettictis civetta congica Apr

This is the only record of this species from the Sudan.


I. # is probably more generally distributed in Africa than the following meagre records for central, eastern, and southern Africa indicate. Theiler (correspondence) states that in her experience, Angolan records are the most numerous.

CENTRAL AFRICA: BELGIAN CONGO (As I. rubicundus limbatus:

Neumann ISOBETSchwetz 1927C. Bequaert 193CRETS31 TThe IIer and Robinson 1954. Arthur, ms.).

EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Hoogstraal l954B. Arthur, ms.).

KENYA (Lewis 1931B,C). UGANDA (Specimens from Lugaga, Ankole, 5000 ft. elev., in #).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: ANGOLA (Nuttall and Warburton 1908,1911. Sousa Dias T950. Santos Dias 1950C). NORTHERN RHODESLA (Massey 1908. Nuttall and Warburton 1908,1911. Matthysse l954. Theiler and Robinson 1954. Arthur, ms.). NYASALAND (Nuttall 1916).

HOSTS Domestic animals: Cattle (Nuttall 1916, Schwetz 1927C, Matthysse T954, Theiler and Robinson 1954), goats (Neumann 1908B,

Lewis 1931B), and sheep (Neumann 1908B). "Various domestic animals" (Sousa Dias 1950).

Man (Nuttall and Warburton 1908).

Wild animals: Baboon (Nuttall and Warburton 1908, Massey 1908). Hare (Lewis I?IC). Waterbuck, steinbuck, and hare (Lewis 1931B). Duiker (Massey 1908, Schwetz 1927C, Bequaert 1931). Congo civet (Sudan record above). Damalisus korrigum ugandae (Uganda material

noted above). BIOLOGY I cavi belongs to the group within the genus Ixodes in which eS emales are usually found together, not necessarily

in copula, on either a "wandering" or a "fixed habitat" host (Nuttall and Warburton 1911). The immature stages are not known. In Angola, Sousa Dias (1950) collected "several females but only a single male". Massey's specimens from a baboon consisted of two males and seven females. In Northern Rhodesia, Matthysse (1954) obtained a few collections of adults from cattle only in October and November. We obviously know very little about the biology of I. cavipalpus.

It appears likely that this species inhabits forested or wooded savannah areas rather than open savannah country.


Ixodes cavi s has been taken feeding on a human child but is not known to transmit pathogenic organisms.


Nuttall and Warburton's (1911) key to Ixodes is confusing at

couplet 10 (male) in that to reach I. cavi s one must consider coxa I as having no spur. A small spur is, however, indicated on coxa I in Nuttall and Warburton's descriptions of this species, is present in our Sudan specimens, and, according to Theiler (correspondence) and Arthur (ms.), occurs on East African specimens in their collections. It also occurs in material from the Belgian Congo in our collection.

A small external spur is also present on coxa IV of Theiler's and some of the present material; on one specimen no spur or sign of a spur is present. Nuttall and Warburton describe this as "a very slight tubercle" in their specimens. The presence and size of a spur on coxa IV is quite possibly subject to some variation.

Previously it has been difficult to differentiate between Ixodes cavi and I. rubicundus Neumann, 1904. It is probable that numerous published remarks about East African and Congo I. rubicundus apply actually to I. # as is true for all such material seen by Arthur (ms.), who presents a more complete description with adequate criteria for each species. I. rubicundus limbatus Neumann, 1908, is considered a synonym of I. cavi on the basis of examination of type material.

Although Nuttall and Warburton in subsequent reports stated the date of authorship of I. cavi s as 1907, the actual date of issue of number 4 of volume L. # the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, in which the original name and description was published, was 10 March 1908. Massey (1908) mentioned: "Ixodes #: Nutt. & Warb. (sp. nov.)," without further reference excep at the material came from a baboon. This obviously referred to specimens that he had sent to Nuttall and Warburton who used them as type specimens for the description of this species. The date of publication of number 5 of volume l2 of the Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, in which Massey's paper appeared, is 2 March 1908. Massey's usage of this name therefore comprises a nomen nudum.


Males fall in the group in which anal grooves are slightly divergent posteriorly; the degree of divergence may be so slight that the grooves are almost parallel. The long, ovate scutum is widest at midlength and has only faint, shallow punctations and short, divergent cervical grooves; lateral grooves are absent and the marginal fold gradually widens posteriorly; the scutal surface is glossy and bears short, fine hairs. Ventrally, the basis capituli has a wide W-shaped point medially near its posterior border. Coxa I has a slight posteromedian spur, and coxa IV has either a slight external tubercle, a small external spur, or no tubercle or spur; the other coxae are unarmed.

Females have anal grooves similar to those of males. The scutum is very slightly longer than wide; has a slightly sinuous posterior margin; dark brown color; long but shallow cervical grooves; no lateral grooves; and numerous, fine punctations. The basis capituli has distinct cornua dorsally and no auriculae (lateral spurs) ventrally, in place of the latter is a rounded or acutely angled bulge. Coxae I and IV have a faint tubercle, that of I situated at the posteromedian point, of IV externally near the posterior margin.

Fuller descriptions of both sexes are presented by Arthur (ms.). The immature stages are unknown.

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