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the tick is Kingwilliamstown. There is a city of this name in Cape Province, South Africa but, so far as known, none in Australia. The specimen came from the Rothschild collection, a frequent source of South African material for Nuttall in the early 1900s. With little hesitation, therefore, this may be considered to be a South African record. Fielding #3: I'ecorded I. vespertilionis from North Queensland bats, but this appears to be merely a repetition of the earlier literature statement. Taylor and Murray (1946, p. 41) state that this species is "doubtfully Australian" and the "original specimen is unfortunately lost".

HOSTS

All authors list bats except for the probably adventitious Hungarian record from a domestic dog (Kotlan 1921A,B). Immature stages and females are usually found on bats; males only in caves inhabited by bats.

The host of only one of the few specimens originating in Africa has been reported. Nuttall's (1916) Algerian specimen came from Pipistrellus (= Vespertilio) kuhlii. The host number of the specimen collected in # was inadvertently not included in the vial. The nymphs taken in Kenya (HH) were found, together with the holotype female of Ixodes simplex africanus, on Miniopterus natalensis arenarius. "So far as known, there are no other records of both I. Vespertilionis and I. simplex subspp. from a single collection. TM # tricolor of South Africa has been discussed in the NOTE .# Hipposideros caffer is also a host in

South Africa (Arthur 1956A).

Genera of European bats reported by Neumann (1916) are Rhino# Plecotus, Pipistrellus, and Myotis. The most commo Sted hosts are R. ferrum-equinum ... hipposideros; the former species is also the # specimen reported by Kohls (correspondence). A few other Rhinolophus species are also mentioned by various authors.

BIOLOGY

Judging from its considerable geographical range, this species is able to adjust to marked climatic variations only partially modified by protected cave environment.

I. vespertilionis is rare on bats in Equatoria Province east of the Nile. Over a thousand bats, representing almost every species in Eastern Equatoria, have been carefully searched without finding more than the single specimen listed above. There has been little opportunity to examine carefully many caves.

Males have been collected only from caves and other retreats in which bats assemble. No males have been found on bats. Nuttall and Warburton (1911) postulated that males may either feed very rapidly and then leave the host or that they may not feed at all Neumann (1916) believed that the various degrees of engorgement in which male specimens are found might not necessarily prove that males do feed but rather may be an indication of degree of nymphal feeding. This conclusion is based on the atrophy of the male hypostome in comparison with its robust development in females and in immature stages.

Neumann # cit.) mentioned the preponderance of numbers of males in relation to females and immature stages in collections and surmised that this may be due to the conspicuousness of the male's vagabond search for females. Females secrete themselves between stones of the caves to digest their blood meals. They probably oviposit in these niches, though this is not certain. Engorged nymphs are sometimes found in similar situations.

When females are found on the host, immature stages are frequently found with them. Feeding is probably comparatively rapid, otherwise it is logical to assume that females and nymphs would have been more frequently reported from bats.

Arthur's (1956A) comparison of data from Switzerland and from Macedonia leads him to believe that, because there is a reasonably high catch of partially and fully engorged ticks between October and January and a number of unfed nymphs and females during the summer, feeding is accomplished mainly during

the winter months. This picture, possibly modified by the host's seasonal breeding cycle and activity, requires further observation.

REMARKS

The exceptionally long legs of this species is a character shared by many chiropteran parasites, notably the Streblidae and Nycteribidae (Diptera) and Argas boueti (cf. Figures 33 and 34). This feature is, however, not shared by all bat parasites, especially those which are strongly appressed laterally, as fleas, or appressed dorsoventrally as bugs of the families Cimicidae and Polyctenidae. Except for Argas boueti, all the known chiropteraninfesting Argas species have normal-length legs, and indeed some, as for instance Argas transgariepinus White, 1846 (cf. Hoogstraal #5, £:#.

Certain morphological peculiarities of adults and immature stages have been briefly mentioned by Arthur (1953A). The haller's organ is described by Arthur (1956B); it is like that of I. simplex Subspp.

Schulze (1938A, figure 28) has utilized this species to illustrate the thesis of morphological indicators due to pressure within the developing nymph.

The subgeneric position of this species has been discussed by Neumann (1916), but this is moot; Arthur (1956A), the outstanding contemporary specialist on this genus, disregards it until further study can be undertaken.

IDENTIFICATION

Both sexes and the immature stages of I. vespertilionis are unique in the extreme elongation of the legs. The Tong an I

grooves of both sexes are open; those of the male slightly converge posteriorly, but female anal grooves are parallel. The male scutum has a few large punctations in three rows and numerous fine, scattered punctations; the female scutum has numerous small, shallow punctations.

The larva and h were partially illustrated and briefly described by Nutt Warburton (1911) but Arthur (1956A) provides complete descriptions of both sexes and of the immature stages.

MARGAROPUS

INTRODUCTION

The genus Margaropus, closely related to Boophilus and confined to £# , consists of only # species, M. winthemi Karsch, 1879, of southern Africa and Madagascar, and M. Ferdi sp. nov. of the Sudan. Earlier assertions that M. winthemi is a South American tick apparently are erroneous.

Usual remarks in the introductory sections for each genus treated in the present work are, in the case of Margaropus, incorporated into the text below and do not require #, here.

Illustrations of nymphal M. reidi sp. nov. and of M. winthemi, together with a review of the latter species, are given in APPENDIX, pages 896 to 905. The unexpected circumstance of the very recent acquisition of the new species necessitates this treatment.

KEY TO THE GENUS MARGAROPUS*
MALES

Six pairs of hair tufts and ventral hook on posterior body margin; a caudal projection present when engorged. Adanal shields sharply pointed distally, accessory shields absent. Scutal outline convex laterally and bluntly rounded posteriorly. Free segments of leg IV as wide as long. (South African winter horse tick)..............................................M. WINTHEMI Figures 359 and 350, 363 to 367

*The characters provided in the key, together with those in the generic key, are sufficient to comprise an adequate diagnosis for each species in this genus.

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