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CENTRAL RAINLANDS AREA
In the Central Rainlands, ticks of big game animals are exceedingly restricted or entirely absent. Few species typical of tropical East Africa that do range into this zone extend further north. Some populations of North African hyalommas penetrate this area though whether they are merely transported or actually reproduce here is uncertain. The presence of two Palaearctic species is intriguing. H. marginatum may be established here from nymphs introduced by '# birds but this explanation cannot be applied to the single host tick H. detritum. The northern limit of this Area is probably the most critical and definite of any boundary in the Sudanese plains save those of the few montane masses that rise from these plains. H. impressum is found only in this and parts of the adjacent Area # the north.
The Nuba Mountains should be considered as a separate sector of this Area but data on tick distribution are not yet sufficiently definitive to allow designation of these mountains as a distinct faunal Area.
Here the desert aspect emerges. Further research will probably show that this Area may be divided into a southern sector in which rare, small populations of several tropical African tick species survive and a northern sector inhabited only by xerophilic species. The narrow Nile Valley carries a small number of species northwards to its great bend, beyond which only H. l. leachii is established. Various hyalommas, R. s. sanguineus, and C. savignyi are the indicator species of this Area in which few others are known to be established. Palaearctic components are here a strong feature, especially in the north. Like the Nuba Mountains in the Central Rainlands, the Marra Mountains may prove to be a distinct faunal Area after sufficient data have been obtained from this region.
No tick records are available from these harsh deserts although rare populations of argasids and hyalommas are suspected to occur in restricted localities.
Specialized collecting will probably reveal a small but
interesting specialized tick fauna mixed with the Fasher-Butana fauna that exists on the coastal plains and in valleys of the eastern slopes of the Red Sea Hills. This Area might be subdivided into a southern sector containing tropical ticks such as R. e. evertsi and B. decoloratus, species that make their last stand among the hyalomas, R.T.s. sanguineus, and 0. savignyi. In the north, even these are lost but Hyalomma and
• S • # populations are denser than in the desert and undiscover aearctic species are expected to occur. The preponderence of Hyaloma species provides this Area with a strongly Palaearctic aspect. Specialized Somali tick fauna of the more southerly coastal plains is not known to reach the Sudan. The composition of tick species that intrude into this Area has some similarity with that further south along the coast but population densities appear to be much lower.
Additional data and references pertinent to a given species obtained or noticed too late for inclusion in the main body of the text are included herein. For the sake of completeness it is intended that this section be continued in subsequent volumes in an attempt to provide up-to-date information on all species treated.
ARGAS PERSIOUS TASCHENBERG (1873). Egypt. Mention of specimens. JACK (1910). Southern Rhodesia. Control and general remarks. WILLCOCKS (1922). Egypt. Remarks on habitats, hosts, importance.
NICOLLE, ANDERSON, & COLAS-BELCOUR (1928D). Tunisia. Local material used for adapting Spanish strain of fowl spirochetes.
OLENEW (1929A,B,1931A, 1934). USSR. Life cycle graphically portrayed in 1931A report; others deal with distribution.
GRIMALDI (1934). Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia; collecting localities.
PAVLOWSKY (1940). Abnormality. "A heart-like shape of the body of Argas persicus is described in different degrees of development. alogous forms are shown in the literature in other ticks also (Amblyomma, Ixodes); it is doubtful that this character, observed in the only tick specimen in hand, should have any taxonomical significance". I should hope not! (HH).
SHARMA (1944). Spermatogenesis briefly described.
TENDETRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.
SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products.
TAYLOR et al. (1955). Egypt. Larvae become infected with Sindbis virus when feeding; nymphs and adults are not susceptible to
WALKER, J. B. (Correspondence). Tanganyika. Although no pub-
and in fact widespread in Tanganyika. ARGAS REFLEXUS OPPERMANN (1935). As A. columbarum: studies on sperm formation.
MACNAY (1954). Canada. Specimens reported, with other ticks, from a bird's nest in British Columbia. Kohls (correspond
ence) finds that these specimens are similar to those
PETRISHEVA (1955). USSR. Presence in certain areas, with respect to control of disease foci.
SCHULZE (1955). As A. columbarum: discussion of metabolic products.
BOETTGER & REICHENBACH-KLINKE (1955). Germany. As A. columbarum: well documented and illustrated account of syndrome in
person following tickbite. ZHMAEWA, PCHELKINA, MISHCHENKO, & KARULIN (1955). USSR, Uzbekistan. Parasite of field sparrows and host and vector of C. burnetii (Q fever). ARGAS BRUMPTI
MOUCHET, J. (1956 correspondence). Cameroons. A male specimen from a warthog burrow, Waza, North Cameroons, sent for identification,
represents the first population known from West Africa and a new
GRIMALDI (1934). Libya (page 508). Nomen nudum, probably misprint for Boophilus annulatus.
SPEISER (1909). Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Record of two specimens.
#ORNITHODOROS FOLEYI GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. As o. franchinii, collecting localities. +ORNITHODOROS LAHORENSIS
FRANCHINI (1927K). Libya. Erroneous report, refers to 0. foleyi.
GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. Repetition of Franchini.
MASSEY (1908). Angola. Tick common in Benguela District.
JACK (1910). Control and general remarks, apparently not based on personal observation.
SCHOUTEDEN (1929). Belgian Congo. Abundant in Kivu.
GRIMALDI (1934). Libya. Erroneous report. Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, collecting localities.
CHERRY (1955). Uganda. Summary: "A campaign using a water miscible preparation of BHC and simple equipment against O. moubata in heavily infested areas is described and its effects on the incidence of relapsing fever assessed. The cost is low and its success favors the acceptance of other public health measures by primitive communities". Other observations on therapeutics of the disease in human beings.
*This species is not known from the Sudan (cf. pages ll, and 115).