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WALTON (1955). Kenya and neighboring areas of Tanganyika. A valuable account of conditions under which O. moubata exists in Digo (Kwale) District and epidemiology of relapsing fever, this report of an unique area should point the way for further comparative research under a variety of conditions. Although settled tribes engage in fishing and a small amount of animal husbandry, farming, and home industries, there is quite a little movement of peoples. On the sandy coastal plain, vegetation varies from short grasslands with forest patches to grasslands with open bush and termite-mound dominated islands of vegetation giving way to scant thorn bush in the interior. Rain falls each month (50 to 60 inches annual at coast, 30 to 40 inches in hinterland). Mean air temperature is 80°F., RH at 0830 about 79%, falling to 70% at 1430.

Domestic fowls are an important source of blood meals for 0. moubata in huts (cf. pages 128,129,147,148,150,181), 113 of 124 samples being positive for fowl blood by the precipitin test. In another sample of 25 ticks from Tiwi, all had fed on fowls alone (the question of chickens preying on ticks is not considered). Ticks were not found on the fowls or in their nests, but usually in dusty cracks, holes, or depressions in the floor near chickens" roosting places. Scarcity of chickens and absence of ticks in damp houses is (inconclusively) correlated.

Other blood meals among the l24 samples mentioned above were eight for man only, two for man and fowl, and one for sheep or goat (from this it would appear either that fowls are more accessible and therefore more frequently utilized as hosts or else that the author was possibly dealing with a fowl-blood adapted strain - HH). It could not be demonstrated that the presence of sheep and goats in dry or in humid areas acted as a deterrent to ticks (cf. pages 127,128,147), also, it does not appear from this study that sheep and goats are frequently parasitized.

Bedsteads are a definite deterrent to tick infestation (cf. pages 147 and 180) because ticks have difficulty in climbing smooth legs, bedlegs do not break the floor, and sweeping and repairing floors is easier. More primitive beds are easily reached and provide shelter for ticks. Broken floors are favorable to the tick (cf. pages 146 and 180).

Human urination in huts, as a single factor, cannot be correlated with tick infestation. Coastal strip recent sediments

and corals, combined with correct climatic conditions, are admirably suited to tick infestation (cf. page 145), but Duruma sandstones, grits of the karroo, and limestone and shale areas are less suitable. Many huts seem to have been infested by visitors traveling from infested areas with blankets (cf. pages 145 and 180) for social purposes, funerals, shopping, and during troop movements.

One of the most interesting aspects of this study is the correlation of infestation with definite climatic conditions. The coastal area, with over fifty inches of rainfall annually and with average hut floor RH of 88% and temperature of 77.8°F., is almost entirely devoid of ticks. Infested areas are those with thirty to fifty inches of rainfall annually and with hut floor RH averaging 83.3%, apparently the optimum for the tampan (consideration of ticks above the floor level, in niches with different RH, or seeking certain conditions with greater or lesser RH within the huts is not attempted). The tick-free hinterland receives about 35 inches of rainfall annually; here the hut floor RH is 79% and the average temperature 78.4°F. (cf. pages 137,156 and 157).

Clearly, this study represents the first generalized attempt to correlate tick infestation with climatic factors and tribal customs and habits. The incidence of spirochete-infected ticks is also noted. It should be of some significance to determine just how far ticks will endeavor to seek out niches with varying microclimates in an infested structure and what the optimum and threshold conditions are.

TENDEIR0 (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products.

LOVETT (1956). Somaliland. Summary: "Tick-borne relapsing fever, formerly common, has been eradicated in the Somaliland Protectorate by planned and systematic destruction of the vector, C. moubata, by a programme of spraying of all human dwellings with a water cispersible preparation of gammexane (P.520). The last indigenous case was seen in September, 1952. It is considered that the danger of reintroduction of the disease is small as O. moubata tend to pass their lives in or near their hatching place, with little tendency for dissemination, so that they are unlikely to become re-established in the settlements that have been cleared by spraying." Whether this surmise is sustained by future experience will be interesting to which for. O. savignyi is considered of no epidemiological significance and the #. and outdoor habitats of the two species are strictly localized in Somaliland, except for the soil under one large shade tree in town, which yielded large numbers of O. moubata. Persons sleeping under this tree contracted relapsing fever from the bites of Q. moubaté.

ORNITHODOROS SAVIGNYI FRANCHINI (1927X). Ethiopia, common in eastern lowlands. GRIMALDI (1934). Libya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia; records.

TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Unsubstantiated review of previous reports from colony.

SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products.

IOVETT (1956). Somaliland. See Q. moubata above.

WILLCOCKS (1922). Egypt. Introduction of nymphs into Cairo among hair on humps of camels from Sinai. Specimens seen by HH in British Museum (Natural History).


HOSTS (page 213). Uganda. A d' specimen from an elephant,
West Nile Province, seen in Veterinary Service collection,

GRIMALDI (1934). Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia; records.
GRIMALDI (1934). Somalia and Ethiopia; records.

TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

THEILER (Correspondence). Preliminary study of a large amount of African material indicates that populations in the Sudan may be referrable to A. schlottkei Schulze, 1932(A), originally described from two males without host data from Tanganyika.


TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

LOWERIDGE (Correspondence). Cf. Pelusios s. sinuatus as a host (last paragraph, page 235). This aquatic turtle suns itself on logs and must be an exceedingly uncommon host of ticks




TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products of A. rhinocerotis.


GRIMALDI (1934). Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, records; that from Hodeida, Yemen, undoubtedly from cattle brought for slaughter or mislabelled locality.

TENDEIRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

Presence of Amblyomma ticks in Europe (cf. page 266). Specimens from southern France are no less unusual than that of the South African species, A. hebraeum, from a cow in southern Bulgaria (Pavlov and Popov 1951)." This tick is presumed to have arrived in Europe as an immature stage on a migrant bird. Such individuals probably seldom if ever survive the winter or find mates.


TENDETRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports on both species from colony.


SAMPAIO & FALA (1952A,B) and SAMPAIO, DA CRUZ, & FALA (1952,1953). Portugal. Boutonneuse fever (R. conorii). The first two papers give laboratory findings and generalized remarks on increasing incidence and geographical distribution of disease in Portugal. In the third, a strain of the rickettsia from Boophilus ticks is reported; the authors believe that these ticks may play a role in transmitting the organism to human beings. The last is a brief statement that the rickettsia is transmitted by the bite of R. sanguineus and has been isolated from Boophilus ticks that had been in the laboratory for two years. Z-The significance of this finding would appear to be more in the line of a reservoir host than a vector - HH 7.


LAHILLE (1914). Argentina. Two females, presumably this spe-
cies, found on camels brought to Buenos Aires from the
Can Islands. These may form the basis of Minning's
(£) record, though it cannot be determined whether
or not Minning examined the material.

GRIMALDI (1934). Eritrea, collecting locality. Not listed from Ethiopia or Somalia.

TENDETRO (1955). Mozambique. Review of previous reports from colony.

SCHULZE (1955). Discussion of metabolic products.

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