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SURBOVA (1955). Bulgaria. As H. P. plumbeum: distribution, biology, ecology, epidemiology. (Not translated).

SERDYUKOVA (1955). USSR. As H. plumbeum: larva illustrated and compared with those of other genera.

TARASEWICH (1955). USSR. As H. P. plumbeum: vector of Q fever (R. burnetii).

HYALOMMA RUFIPES
DAUBNEY (1944). Kenya. Morphology and biology under study.
HYALOMMA TRUNCATUM

WALKER, J. B. (Correspondence). Kenya. Life cycle. At Muguga, when all stages were fed on the ears of rabbit, the life cycle was the two host type. Miss Walker believes that the type of host to which the larva attaches influences the number of hosts involved in the life cycle. The following data were obtained when nonfeeding stages were maintained at 25°C. to 27°C.

PERIOD DAYS
Preoviposition 5
Oviposition to hatching 28
Larvae feed and molt; nymphs
feed on same animal 15 to 23
Nymphal premolting period 17
Adult prefeeding period 7 to 17 or more

Disease relations: Experimentally, East Coast fever (Theileria arva) develops and is transmitted by H. truncatum (experi ments by Dr. S. F. Barnett and Mr. K. P. Bailey). Inasmuch as immature stages do not normally feed on bovines, transmission in nature is rare.

Figures 339 and 340, c', dorsal and ventral views Figure 341, Q, dorsal view

IXODES ALLUAUDI (After The TerT541)

PLATE C

[graphic]

DKODES ALLUAUDI Neumann, 1913.

(Figures 339 to 341)
THE SHREW RUSSET TICK

L N Q & EQUATORIA PROVINCE RECORD l Kipia Crocidura sp. Jan (BMNH)

This nymph was taken at 8000 feet elevation in the Imatong Mountains from the tail of an unidentified Crocidura shrew. It is specimen number 1950.3–20-42 in British Museum (Natural History) collections and has recently been identified by Arthur (1956 correspondence).

DISTRIBUTION

Ixodes alluaudi is known only from the Imatong Mountains of the Sudan, highland forests and alpine meadows of Tanganyika, Kenya, and several localities in Basutoland and the Union of South Africa. Intervening populations undoubtedly have been overlooked.

EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Not previously recorded. Arthur, ms.). TANGANYIKA (Neumann 1913). KENYA (Arthur, ms.).

SOUTHERN AFRICA: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (Theiler 1941. Arthur, ms.). TEASUTOLAND"(Arthur, ms.).

HOSTS

The species of the Sudan host is not known. Crocidura shrews recorded from the Imatong Mountains during the present study are C. hildegardeae phaios and C. nyansae toritensis (common), both of which are descri as new subspecies (Setzer 1956). The host of Neumann's material was not stated.

From Theiler's (1941) study of South African data it appears that the red shrew, C. flavescens, may be the true host and infestation of other rodents and insectivores is incidental. These hosts are the vlei or groove-toothed rat, Otomys irroratus subsp.; the four-striped grass mouse, Rhabdomys IHE. Subsp., Brant's gerbil, Tatera brantsi maecalinus; Lo .# gerbil, T. loben# subsp.; and the Eastern Province golden-mole, Amblysms

entotus subsp. Thirteen collections were made from red shrews

welve from other hosts. Collections from red shrews also contained the most specimens. Arthur (ms.) records the same

hosts and adds Cryptomus capensi ->

BIOLOGY
Life Cycle

"Probably a three host tick; adults, nymphs, and larvae invariably have been collected separately except for two records from Brant's gerbil when adults and nymphs were taken together" (Theiler 1941).

Ecology

The fact that the few specimens known from the Sudan and Tanganyika were taken in highland forests or alpine zones is of some interest. In southern Africa this altitudinal distribution is not so restricted.

The red shrew frequents runways made by rodents in long grass beside streams and rivers. In drier areas, this tick is taken in the smaller and shorter runways of other rodents associated with bunches of grass at the base of thorn bushes and other shrubs. Red shrews also inhabit the underground nesting burrows abandoned by rodents (Theiler 1941).

REMARKS

Theiler (1941) has made an extensive study of the morphological features of this species to show its exceptionally primitive characters. This report should be studied by anyone interested in tick morphology or phylogeny.

IDENTIFICATION

The following notes are a brief abstract of Theiler's (1941) descriptions, which also include those of the larva and nymph. Arthur (ms.) also redescribes this species; his manuscript # not available at the time this is written but he has (correspondence) confirmed the accuracy of Theiler's description and of this summary.

Male. This is a small light brown tick with slender legs. The scutum, approximately twice as long as wide and sharply pointed at both ends, bears fine, evenly distributed punctations posteriorly and coarser punctations anterolaterally. Cervical grooves are vaguely indicated. The short, converging palpi, which overlap the short, blunt hypostome, are borne on a lateral projection of the basis capituli. The ventral plates and coxae are most distinctive (Figure 340).

Female. Palpi are narrow and elongate but also borne on a lateral projection from the basis capituli. The scutum is widest just posterior of midlength and abruptly converging posteriorly; its faintly reticulate surface bears a few medium size punctations and scattered hairs; cervical grooves are absent; lateral grooves are fine. Ventrally, genital grooves are long, straight, divergent; anal grooves are truncate anterior of the anus, thence long and subparallel tending to converge distally.

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