## Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Volume 2American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2001 - Arctic regions |

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Page 106

Uncertainties in the wave loading arise from the

which are assumed to be independent , and marine growths . Uncertainties in Ap

can be considered in the drag

Uncertainties in the wave loading arise from the

**force**coefficients , cd and comewhich are assumed to be independent , and marine growths . Uncertainties in Ap

can be considered in the drag

**force**coefficient . Marine growths increase ...Page 149

amplitude normal to the pipeline , Uc is the steady current normal to the pipeline ,

and is the phase angle of the wave

traditional static approach is referred to as the Level 1 approach by AGA ( 1993 )

...

amplitude normal to the pipeline , Uc is the steady current normal to the pipeline ,

and is the phase angle of the wave

**force**that maximises wt in Equation 1 . Thistraditional static approach is referred to as the Level 1 approach by AGA ( 1993 )

...

Page 300

Stubu ( w ) smo ) т coworkers [ 2 , 3 ] developed an alternative approach based

on expanding the Morison drag

response , whose Gaussianity is then exploited to compute statistics of any order

...

Stubu ( w ) smo ) т coworkers [ 2 , 3 ] developed an alternative approach based

on expanding the Morison drag

**force**in a Taylor series in terms of the first - orderresponse , whose Gaussianity is then exploited to compute statistics of any order

...

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acceptable analysis applied approach assessment associated assumed calculated coefficient combined components considered corresponding corrosion cost crack criteria damage dependent depth determined developed directional distribution dynamic effect element Engineering environmental equation estimate evaluated example expressed extreme factor failure fatigue Figure force frequency function fuzzy given growth important increase initial inspection limit load loss maintenance marine maximum mean measures Mechanics method motion normal observed obtained offshore operations parameters peak performed period pipe pipeline platform possible prediction present probability procedure production random range relative reliability represented response return period riser risk safety ship shown shows significant simulation spectral spectrum statistical storm strength stress structure surface Table theory typical uncertainty variables wave height wind