## Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Volume 2American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2001 - Arctic regions |

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Page 149

amplitude normal to the

and is the phase angle of the wave force that maximises wt in Equation 1 . This

traditional static approach is referred to as the Level 1 approach by AGA ( 1993 )

...

amplitude normal to the

**pipeline**, Uc is the steady current normal to the**pipeline**,and is the phase angle of the wave force that maximises wt in Equation 1 . This

traditional static approach is referred to as the Level 1 approach by AGA ( 1993 )

...

Page 155

Figures 7 and 8 show that the pipe on - bottom stability reliability at a particular

location is a function not only of the wave and current climate at that site but also

of the

Figures 7 and 8 show that the pipe on - bottom stability reliability at a particular

location is a function not only of the wave and current climate at that site but also

of the

**pipeline**orientation . Thus , the overall**pipeline**reliability can be obtained ...Page 291

9 Specific defects along the 0 - 20 km segment of " Ta - Mu "

probability of failure ( CPF ) 0 . 04 Ultimate permissible probability of failure

Lamination in the near weld zone NWZ ( 3143 m ) - 2 yrs Segment with

lamination ...

9 Specific defects along the 0 - 20 km segment of " Ta - Mu "

**pipeline**Conditionalprobability of failure ( CPF ) 0 . 04 Ultimate permissible probability of failure

Lamination in the near weld zone NWZ ( 3143 m ) - 2 yrs Segment with

lamination ...

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acceptable analysis applied approach assessment associated assumed calculated coefficient combined components considered corresponding corrosion cost crack criteria damage dependent depth determined developed directional distribution dynamic effect element Engineering environmental equation estimate evaluated example expressed extreme factor failure fatigue Figure force frequency function fuzzy given growth important increase initial inspection limit load loss maintenance marine maximum mean measures Mechanics method motion normal observed obtained offshore operations parameters peak performed period pipe pipeline platform possible prediction present probability procedure production random range relative reliability represented response return period riser risk safety ship shown shows significant simulation spectral spectrum statistical storm strength stress structure surface Table theory typical uncertainty variables wave height wind