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Can We Make Happiness by
A cross-section of “We the People”—The only thing we ask the government to do is to keep the roads to success open
F you stop a passer-by on the street who happens to be neither a bureaucrat nor a reformer (and I am sure there must be some wayfarers who are neither) and ask him, “What do you want out of the Government?” more than likely he will reply: “A little civility!” That, unless he has a particular ax to grind, is about all that the average citizen does want. - But in times of crisis a certain and very vocal section of our citizens, always wants the Government to take charge of something—farm credit, commercial credit, foreign trade credit, the regulation of prices up or down, labor, capital, or whatever seems to be causing most trouble at the moment. We have the government-owned merchant marine and the socialistic flair toward paternalism as expressed in the Plumb Plan—which apparently has gone into winter quarters. Then always we have with us “movements” for the creation of new Cabinet offices or departments, and the erection of new national laws or constitutional amendments covering this or that, blue or otherwise. A minority is always talking about the “duty of the Government.” The government-doing idea has been insidiously growing. Emergency laws grow into permanent laws.
Riding Two Horses at Once
E invited this condition. The war only gave the opportunity for intensive expansion. It naturally follows from our passionate ardor for laws. We have more State and Federal laws than all of the rest of the world put together. The Government, if given a law, is supposed to be able to do anything. We would settle all labor disputes by law; we would regulate prices by law; we would regulate foreign exchange by law; some would even regulate, not only the spoken, but also the secret opinions of our citizens by law, and finally, in logical sequence, we would have the Government by law go into business—have it run the ships, the railroads, the warehouses, the coal mines, and thus eventually be not only the sovereign power but also the source of all blessings. Giving all power to the Government is a perfectly logical progression. If we are opposed to the private holding of property, and believe in a wholly socialized state in which the single employer shall be the Government, then it is just and right to extend the powers of the Government so that, instead of a government, we shall have a socialized state— which is the present Russian ideal. One cannot quar
rel with the frank presentation of this view. There
By John Hays Hammond
is no essential moral turpitude in socialism. The turpitude comes in affirming the present general construction of society and at the same time advocating the assumption of powers by the Government which are wholly inconsistent with our present government —that is, the mode (as in the Plumb Plan) is to attempt to ride two horses at once, which is feasible enough unless the horses happen to be going in opposite directions—and they usually are. The prime difficulty is that many are trying to combine democracy and autocracy—not democracy and socialism. Democracy may be described as an arrangement for giving people what they wish. Autocracy is one for giving them what so me one else wishes them to have. And the way it is working out with us is that we elect men to office ostensibly to express our wishes, and then they, through a bureaucratic system which seems to ride supreme, give to the people not what the people wish to have, but what the bureaucrats consider that they ought to have. To go a little further: The reason for democracy is found in the supposition that the majority of people will know what is best for them and their country, and will be unselfish enough to vote for such things —even when they run counter to their own selfish interests. This disregards the human factor. What we really have is the right of the majority to get what it thinks it wants, whether or not that is good for it or for the country or for anybody. Since the majority of the people seldom stop to consider a question, it happens that what we get is commonly the will of a fervent minority who take the trouble to see that the representatives of the majority do their bidding. The most notable case of this is prohibition, where, because the majority of the people most certainly desired a regulation of the liquor traffic and
elimination of its most objectionable phases, we have instead a drastic prohibition law which, I believe, is indorsed in full only by a minority. If only we had a sufficiently large number of perfect human beings, an autocracy by them would be the best form of government. Such a group has never been discovered. The danger of autocracy is selfishness, and so is selfishness the danger of democracy, with the added danger that it will be a wholly ignorant selfishness and that the officials elected by an ignorant selfishness will play upon that selfishness. We might as well forget the notion that we are going to find perfection in government or that an excessive faith in the efficary of laws is going to substitute for a reasoned intelligence on the part of the individual. Human beings elected to office do not often become more capable than those same human beings would be in private life. We can elect a man to power, but we cannot elect him to wisdom, and even if he acquires wisdom the Government cannot of itself do anything without the aid of the individual. The qualities essential to a well-governed community are not made by law. Our social system depends for its success upon virtue, honesty, temperance, patriotism, industry, and contentment. The government cannot by statute compel a man to be virtuous or honest or temperate or patriotic or industrious or contented. The law can compel a man to support his wife —that is, if it has caught him and he prefers to pay rather than go to jail, but it cannot compel a man to love his wife. The government can punish neighbors for throwing rocks at each other, but it cannot by law impart the neighborly quality. A law may say that all men are equal, but it cannot endow the dull man with brightness, the weak man with strength, the idle man with diligence, or the improvident man with thrift. (Continued on page 27)
learning to be the bullwark of the nation at Annapolis. To drag is to take, and a fair femme is the young and attractive female of our sects. The rest is easy, hop being dance in all walks of life. The worst thing that can happen to a Red Mike is to be seen taking notice of a femme. Other things to be remembered about Annapolis are that a snake is a crab who does drag fair femmes. A 4-0 girl is a peachy dancer, good looking and everything, while a brick is the opposite. A plebe is a freshman, from the latin for Lower Orders. To bilge is to flunk, and Annapolis is Crabtown on
RED MIKE is a crab who wont drag a fair femme to a hop. A crab is a midshipman
the Severn. If this seems hard, remember that if you ever hope to understand your navy you will have more to go through than mere language. I only know it all at my age through the fortunate accident of having a cousin get into trouble in his plebe year and so open a new and enchanted life for me.
Rod, short for Roderick, started Annapolis in high hope. But though his mother is a promminent D. A. R., etc., yet he had to bow to being a plebe and the sport of all which is a dogs life. Eating humble pie he took his meals under the table when upper classmen told him to, and crammed Calculus for all who liked to hear it explained better than to dig it out. But he saw red when not allowed to go
to. hops, being a plebe and not good enough until commencement when his servitude was over. So he spent quite some time one night sewing tobacco bags into upper classmen's pockets, which couldn't be got out before inspection. After which things got worse for him and the promminent member telegraphed mother to do something for goodness sakes. Mother knows lots about men through being married and canteen work. So she had no sympathy for Rod, but set out from our nation's capital to shame him until he'd be a patriot and face the worst. After she'd taken him to dinner and a movie and given him 20 dollars he said he would. So she threw something into the bargain and said that since Rod wouldn’t be a plebe after commencement and could go to the hop that night, she'd bring me up. Cousins are not much treat either way, and all Rod ever noticed me was to put salt down my neck. But I was wild with joy and saw no cloud in my sky but my hair which is bobbed owing to the flu. “Will it grow out in time?” cried I. “I hope not,” said mother, who wept bitterly when it was cut, but now wants to keep me a baby the rest of my life. “Then let me pick out my clothes myself, anyway,” was my rejoinder, dreading more of the “suitable” things which are life's problem. “We’ll see. The principle consideration is Rod. He's had a hard time and leaves on a long cruise the day after the hop. He is apt to be blue.”
NOWING Rod, I didn’t think it very apt, but said nothing. And so the great day came when we fought gallantly for seats on the Annapolis car with many gobs returning to the battleships which were waiting at the mouth of the Severn to carry Rod and others off on cruise. My chum Horty's father is a Senator. Hence many persons are always trying to get him in debt to them, and he had two tickets for the graduation which he did not want but we did. So we went up to Annapolis the evening before. Nought interested me on the car but my suit case with a dress in it which for once in my life was not “suitable,” and a pair of eighteen-dollar pumps. But such was not so with mother. Having spent the war in canteens, she now never comes across a uniform but she thinks she has got to write a letter or scare up a meal or listen to a sad story. I kept her away from the gobs, but no sooner had we first
turned an ankle on the cobbles of Annapolis than I
knew all good intentions were in vain. A midshipman with a flat square package under his arm got off the car ahead and looked worried. A girl mustn't be too particular in midshipmen, but this one had a face like khaki that has been washed with the colored clothes. Anyway, they think higher of you if properly introduced. “Look at that boy,” said mother in the midst of bribing a seer and yellow darky to take our bags on his wheelbarrow. “That package bothers him.” “All I ask,” whispered I in wild alarm, “is for you to remember I’m here.” “Looks like a phonograph record. I certainly will not pay ten cents each fer the umbrellas. Anyway, its safer to carry them.” And before my very eyes she said to the midshipman: “Its beautiful here.” Frantically he turned to a waffle sign and mumbled yes, at which rawcus sounds came from two other midshipmen close by. Jerking in every limb the first shouted to our astonishment: “So you came down, Aunt Winifred.” “Go with the bags,” gasped mother to me. And saving up things to say when next we met I followed the wavering darky. When next we met she came into the hotel room and threw a square package on the bed like an innocent babe. “'Lo, sweetheart,” said she. “All I ask,” said I, “is that next time you pick out one who has not got eyes like the peewee marbles Rod used to put in the ring so I’d have next to nothing to shoot at.” “Where's my notebook?” was her reply. tor Smylie's downstairs.” “All I ask,” I cried, “is that you do not disgrace me with suffrage here.” “Alright,” said she, giving up. I ducked the kiss she tried to get on the back of my neck, at which she sat on my chair arm instead. “Then let's ask riddles,” said she. “I’m first. What's a Red Mike?” Dying to know, I yet remained distant and gave up. At which she told me what can be read at the beginning of this peace. “He’s one,” said she, waving at the square package. “His career tottered when we noticed him. If he saves any remnants of a ruined life, it will be
My bobbed hair went fine, as it is quite the thing and rated cute by midshipmen
because he thought up Aunt Winifred. No one can avert female relatives.” “Are you his parcel carrier?” said I, looking at the package. “That,” said mother, “is contraband.” We know many Southern senators in our nation's capital and so forth. Their contraband never comes flat, but I said nothing. “Poor youngster,” she began, but I reached the end of all endurance, having got a book called “Know Your Navy,” and so cried out: “He is not a Youngster as can be seen by the stripes on his sleeves. Youngsters are the same as Sophomores, while he—” “All right, then, poor Second Classman! . He had been to Washington for a phonograph which for some reason he could not go to sea without. But on the train coming back his pals told him that phonographs and records, having become too plentiful at Bancroft Hall, are being cleaned out. Depressed but not crushed, he remembered that this is a Democratic Navy and that gobs do not come under the laws which oppress their superiors. And he figured that bribery would obtain him the use of a machine in the sailors' quarters if he could only get his record aboard the boat. But his pals tell him it will be confiscated if he takes it to his room. And that even if he gets it into his sea bag it will show up at inspection. They also point out how difficult, it is to conceal the three-dollar size on the person—”
“I hope you do your hair for dinner,” was my reply. “So,” continued she, quite dampened. “I am to
wrap it up like a photograph and give it to him as he embarks—a parting gift from Aunt Winifred. Certainly I expect to do my hair.”
OW you may pass over several hours and come to mother and me picking out reer balcony seats in the Armory for graduation next A. M. Mother thought of the reer balcony because we could see all and yet not even have to pretend to listen to speeches. We arrived early while yet the whole place was empty of midshipmen except some in white who were ushers. The platform was far, far away, set with flags and chairs for important persons. In the distance it looked like a dolls stage. From under us two big guns pointed at the wall over it. The roof was hung with green and white bunting, and a dado thing of dancing nimphs ran all around the place, though foreign in the navy. Sweet dowdy little old ladies kept being ushered in. You could tell they were dying to have you know one of the graduates was their son. All the fathers were there in best suits as well. And sweethearts in organdie! Though robbed in organdie myself, yet I suffered bitter envy of those to whom to-morrow's
parting would be so sad, while I had only Rod. But like the snowflake on the river, a moment white then gone forever, bitterness melted when the band came in with the regiment behind. Who am I that I should cast eyes on a First Classman? So I let the graduates in white uniforms file by without a flutter, and kept my thrills for the blue uniforms which speedily followed and filled the floor. Mother caught her breath too, the way she does when the flag goes up. And I felt such an interest in my country that I looked for Rod lost in the sea of caps below, but found nothing. Not so the chaperone behind with four girls and eyes for everything. “There's Alec,” she broke out first thing. “Second from the fat one. Goodlooking? The class? My dear, if you think this class is good-looking, you should have seen the class of ’03. It was just before I married, and I got so confused.” Far away could be seen dim figures moving. But all the difference between them was brass buttons or no brass buttons. “Wait until they begin to faint,” promised the chaperone. “Faint?” gasped a girl in extasy. “Who?” “Plebes. Presently they will start to fall like leaves.” “I learned first aid—would they let me—could I—” “No, you couldn’t. Upper classmen who tell plebes to faint, carry out those plebes themselves. Its their way of getting into the outer air.” “What a wonderful idea! Advanced midshipmen are so clever!” “Yes, arent they? Of course if a plebe gets caught at the game its confinement for him and no shore leave on cruise. But he's only a plebe—and the hour before the class graduates is the last chance his tormentors have. From where you sit does that look like an invocation beginning?” No such luck. We all ducked, but the speaker spoke but three minutes and mother says no-invoker was ever that much of a Christian. When the real one started you could tell the difference. We began to feel the heat. Of course the regiment stood like a ramrod for its blessing, but back where we were could be heard whispers resembling the reer rows in church. By listening you
knew the Northerners from the Southerners around. All North
erners said things like “Bully Kid,” when they found a boy they knew, while Southerners murmured gentle words like “You would know he was a Lee.” * We felt uncomfortabler and uncomfortabler as the invoker went on with his brass buttons shining while he fought ior breath. None know s what he said, but there was applause like it was alright when he quit. By shape and no brass buttons we knew when the Secretery of the Navy stepped out, and the officers told the ranks below to stand at ease and take it as easy as they could. All did except one thin line of plebes, who were being tortured for a parting shot by two se c on d classmen. No officers came to rescue them, and so they had to stand at attention. Which did * the Secretery no good
besides owing to the distance over which he could not see. Other plebes were more fortunate, for being so commanded by their betters they now fainted in all directions, and were carried out. Each plebe thus did fine by the two who carried him out. I tried being faithful to the Democrats and anyway looking like I cared for the Secretery. But he kept going, and even Democrats should be reasonable sometimes, so I gave up and followed natural instincts toward the regiment.
NE of the Second Classmen had thought up something new for plebes besides standing at attention. He picked a tall one and told him to applaud the Secretery, at which the plebe's neck grew red with indignity. He made him pat two fingers of one hand into the other hand held first at the right ear and then the left. But vigilence being the price of liberty, the Second Classman had to be very vigilent as he took liberties with the plebe, turning his head round like a traffic policeman's what-you-call-it as he watched for officers. The neck went from red to purple which interested me as did the fact that it looked familiar. That it looked like Rod's. That it was Rod's. Mother saw nothing, never having wanted to get even with that neck like me. . When it was twenty-five minutes since the Secretery began a gun crew wound down a big gun till it pointed at the platform and I thought the end of endurance had come. But there was no carnidge, midshipmen leaning against it for support instead. An officer came to see what the stir was, and the two Second Classmen who had been looking after the plebes grew so innocent they backed against the gun and gazed at the gallery. The good-looking one was The Red Mike! Remembering the salt down my neck, I understood him deeply. Besides his face is the rich color of a life guard's back in summer, and midshipmen are midshipmen anyway you look at it. My wrist watch passed the half hour, but the speech went on. Plebes fainted with increasing vigor all over the place. (Continued on page 29)
“Why have you not liked femmes from earliest youth?’” inquired I
Toledo owes much to her harbor and position on Lake Erie, but she owes more to her factories
Toledo—the City Young
Greater than any factory in it. . . . Fifty
miles from Detroit, 75 from Marion, 100 from Cleveland, 180 from Indianapolis, 210 from Chicago, and 115 from Columbus. . . . Surviving splendidly the interference of Ohio politicians, the rivalry of other towns, and the temporary closing of its biggest factory.
A place where Brand Whitlock, Golden Rule Jones,
“Gunk,” the newsboys' friend, and the superintendent of schools are not any better
OLEDO, OHIO. . . . A city brought forward in ten years by factories. . . .
IX. — How We Americans Live
By Allen D. Albert
of our grandsires foretold the rise of Toledo before
anybody but impractical dreamers believed the rail
road would work. It does not matter much, it seems to me, that those
the Indian hunting grounds where those two canals converged at what is now Toledo, and let your fancy run. That was the normal trade territory of this new city in 1845. The canals let into the great water at one of the safest and most capacious harbors of the earth. Through Maumee Bay there is deep water for a channel never less than 400 feet wide. Within the Maumee River the channel varies from 700 feet in width to 1,400 feet, and is widest at the uppermost dock. And, having pretty well seen the rivers of the Continent, I do not believe the Maumee is so very
known than the director of the Art Museum. . . . Where the ablebodied give the crippled a square deal. . . . Where a middle-class home looks like a country club. . . . And the clefgy of all denominations speak as they pass by. On the muddy Maumee, 13 electric lines, 23 railroad lines, a natural-gas pipe line, and Lake Erie. . . . Handles half the coal hauled on the Great Lakes. . . . Our second automobile center. . . . Our first center for art for all the people, with this for its motto: “No city is great unless it rests the eye, feeds the intellect, and leads its people out of the bond-, age of the commonplace.”
A CTORIES do not make cities any more than violin strings and sheet brass make a Beethoven symphony. They are necessary. But they have to be played on, in time, in tune, according to a leader's great understanding. Toledo, at the western end of Lake Erie, is one of the most impressive American illustrations of that truth. The forty-eight States are strewn with cities that have
muddy, after all. Of further promise, the harbor was at the foot of the upper chain of lakes. What the future should provide in the territory stretching to the south and southwest, and within commercial reach of the lakes to the north and northwest, might be made to center on this wonderful harbor—and long ago it was realized that in this area the future would procure golden yields of corn and wheat, millions of tons of coal, lumber for the building of whole cities, iron ore and copper in uncounted ships. All of this presupposed, however, a normal use of water routes for the bearing of cargoes. Unfortunately for Toledo, from about 1855 until to-day there has not been such a use of American lakes and rivers. So the dream of the “future great” has been a long time unrealized. If one can hint it, without offense to the oldest inhabitants, Toledo's sleep was for years untroubled.
FIRST deflection of trade from its territory came through the opening, well to the south
been wrecked by factories. But not Toledo. It has grown through the growth of factories. Which is to say that it has been building a city with the support of factories instead of supporting factories at the expense of the city. In 1910 Toledo was the thirtieth city of the United States. In 1920 it is the twenty-sixth. Ten years have sufficed for it to grow from 168,497 persons to 243,109. ' Thus tardily are old dreams of its greatness fulfilled. We like to think, as we nose about the world or read this or that, how we discovered possibilities here and there. Why, G. W. foresaw the eminence pf Detroit that startles us so in 1920 and hundreds
the Art Museum.
early hopes for Toledo were woven out of calculations that have since pulled apart. They were reasoning in those early days on the basis of canals. One, finished in 1843, had joined the Wabash to Lake Erie at the points where the two waterways were nearest to each other. The other gave favorable outlet to the lakes for the Ohio River country by joining the Big Miami to Lake Erie at the village of Port Lawrence in 1845. Make a map in your mind of the Middle West from Logansport and Lafayette, in Indiana, south to Louisville, east to Cincinnati, and then north to
of Toledo, of the Cumberland National Road. This was an artery that took no account of harbors on the lakes, and soon there flowed through it thousands of wagonloads of supplies for the new country and tons of grain to pay for the supplies. Then, likewise to the south of the lakes, came three highways of a new kind—with iron rails going over the mountains rather than water going round them. Another rail route treated Toledo as a way station between Chicago and Buffalo. Two roads that made the city their terminus steadily subordinated themselves, from year to year, to roads that did not. And through the service of the railroads to the south * two great cities, Indianapolis and Columbus, arose in the Toledo territory, rivaled Toledo, and passed it. - "particular place.
By 1910 the area that had seemed in 1845 to belong to Toledo so incontestably had been divided among competitor cities like an American Poland. Now it would make interesting reading if I could write that along about 1910 all this was understood of Toledo's leaders and moved them to say: “Look here! We've been basket holders in this town for half a century. Let's be go-get-ers. Let's go and get some factories. Then let's keep the town up to the factories.” But the men of Toledo did not do that. The town in the 1900's was a trudger. When the punch came it came from new men, from rank outsiders, and from youngsters. And when it came the older men did a much bigger thing than going out to get factories. They hooked up in harness with the newcomers and the new spirit in the Toledo Commerce Board and pulled like oxen for the permanent good of everybody.
O began the building of the greater Toledo. It was a movement perceptible in the very air. Business men of all fields reflected it. In 1910 Columbus passed Toledo in population, but if ever I met men who did not really mind such a seeming loss it was in Toledo in 1911. Young leaders were everywhere, with older men backing them, always with money, and, what is rarer, nearly always with grunts of sympathy and encouragement. One of the hard things to make practical men believe is that you cannot measure the importance of a new business according to the number of men it brings. Probably the Overland Company, when it moved to Toledo, did not pick up and transport more than a few hundred families. It was months before the shops were ready for 2,000 men. Nevertheless, fast as the repair gangs could be got out of the way, some 2,000 were put to work on automobiles, and they, in their turn, represented in wives and kiddies about 4,000 more, and the 6,000, in their turn, represented in new grocery clerks, mail carriers, laundry girls, and school-teachers, some 2,000 more, and then there were more marriages and more home making and more children, until the 2,000 became 15,600. “Oh, ho, ho,” laughs the practical man. “What a fancy this nut has Why, everybody knows that the average urban family in the United States is only 4.2, or something like that.” There is a laugh in that calculation, but not in that It is to be found in the fact that the ratio I have used is the average of the general population in the fifteen largest industrial cities compared with the industrial population. Not only do people come in the train of a new employing agency out of all apparent proportion, but the manufacture of similar lines is often quickened. In the ten years following the removal of
Gigantic machinery loads ships with coal in record time and enables Toledo to handle half the coal hauled on the Great Lakes
the Overland Company to Toledo some thirty other companies have opened factories there to make automobile accessories. Simultaneously there has been a strong forward movement in other concerns. More than 1,000 men are employed to-day by each of these firms: the Toledo Bridge and Crane Company, the Toledo Machine and
membered. The conclusion might be that not twothirds of the new workfolk were married and that none of them had any children. Of course that is absurd. What does it mean, then? It means that thousands of the 41,122 new workpeople have not brought their families with them. And we can be sure of that. Because if Toledo had them all and had expanded its city service to accommodate them all, its population would be 468,000 this year instead of 243,000.
HAT is the supreme problem involved in city building through factory building—the assimilation of the workman and his family. If it is achieved, humanity is greater than industry. If it is not achieved, humanity, industry, and municipality all suffer. Before you surmise that Toledo has made a poor fist of things, learn now that the plot of this piece is that Toledo has done decidedly better than many other cities. In this city, in the years of its industrial expansion, the emphasis has been on homes, schools, health, art, and religion. It has not wrought much for health. It has (Continued on page 25)
Tool Company, the Toledo Shipbuilding Company, the Toledo Furnace Company, the Libbey Glass Manufacturing Company, the Ford Plate Glass Company, and the National Malleable Castings Company. In all, by the estimate of the research section of the Toledo Commerce Board, there are now 65,000 persons on the rolls of Toledo manufacturing institutions. Suppose, for conservatism's sake, we reduce that figure by 5,000. We shall then face several facts of large significance to Toledo. The increase in industrial wage earners in ten years is, by this showing, 41,122. The
total increase in population is 74,612. The storekeeping, schoolteaching, day-laboring population grew also, it must be re
korb photo co
Toledo in the 1900's was a trudger. Then young blood came in, the older men hooked up in harness with the newcomers, and the city got into its stride