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lation. It is on a smaller type and paper than the last, and seems to have been intended for the use of families,-Entitled,

The Byble in Englishe, that is to saye, the content of all the holye scripture, both of the old and Neve Testament, truely translated after the veryte of the Hebrew and Greke textes. Printed at London by Thomas Petyt and Robert Redman for Thomas Berthelet, printer unto the Kynge's Grace, 1540.” The Colophon isą“ The end of the New Testament, and of the whole Byble, finisshed in Apryll, Anno MCCCCCXL.”

This book had been submitted neither to the King, nor any Bishop, even though it was executed for his Majesty's printer. It was warranted by Crumwell, according to the privilege given to him on the 14th of November last. By the month of July, however, another of the great Bibles was ready.

O“ The Bible in Englyshe, that is to saye the contēt of al the holy Scripture, both of the olde and newe Testamēt with a prologe thereinto, made by the reverende father in God, Thomas Archbishop of Cantorbury. This is the Byble apoynted to the use of the churches. O Printed by Richard Grafton, cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, mdxl.” The colophon is—“ The ende of the newe Testament and of the whole Byble, fynished in July, Anno MCCCCCXL."

Trembling for his life, and imploring mercy from his inhuman master for a month past, this Bible is remarkable for its being finished at the very time of Crumwell's execution, and the more so from its having still on the engraved frontispiece, his shield or coat of arms ! This had first appeared last year, or 1539, and now a third time in this book; but Crumwell is dead, nay, was put to death on the 28th of this very month, and any other undertaking must have suffered, in which he, or any other disgraced minister, had taken such a prominent interest. It has been asserted, indeed, that after his fall, the Bible was complained of, as being heretical and erroneous ; nay, that means were taken to persuade the King that the free use of the Scriptures, which Cranmer had so strongly urged in his preface, was injurious to the peace of the country. But a crisis had come, for here, by the month of November, a third folio Bible is ready for publication. Two editions with Cranmer's name on the title, and marked as appointed for public worship, were already out, and what was now to be done? Crumwell is gone, and Cranmer had not power sufficient to command the Bishops; but there is one alive who in a moment can command them all, or any one whom he is pleased to select. This book, then, must not be lost, nor even suppressed, though the Vicar-general be no more. Nay, an expedient must be adopted not only to silence all calumny, but push the sale of the work, to which, it will appear in due time, neither the King nor the Bishops had contributed any pecuniary aid. Here, then, was Tunstal standing by, who of all the rest had been so conspicuous as an opponent since 1526, and it was fit that the unbending heterodoxy of this original enemy should now be put to the test; and here was Heath, who had recently gone over to Tunstal's party. Henry, therefore, did what seemed to him the best thing that could have been thought of in these circumstances. He commanded these two men to sit down, and say what they thought of the Bible now ready. The book was printed by November : meanwhile Gardiner is sent out of the way to the Emperor's court, and Tunstal and Heath must apply to their task. As Gardiner and others had delayed Cranmer's first edition, and then declared in the end that there were no heresies in it,” why examine the translation again? We may reply, because of Crumwell's execution, and because it was much better, by way of confounding the enemy, to make these opponents speak out. They took time, till the year to which the book belongs was ended, or the 25th of March, and then out it came with a title still more pompous, declaring the fact as now stated.

The Byble in Englishe of the largest and greatest volume, auctoryed and apoynted by the commandemente of our moost redoubted Prynce and soueraygne Lorde Kynge Henry the VIII., supreme heade of this his churche and realme of Englande : to be frequented and used in every churche in this his sayd realme, accordynge to the tenour of his former Injunctions giuen in that behalfe.

Orersene and perused at the commaundmēt of the Kynge's Hyghnes, by the ryghte reterende fathers in God Cuthbert Bysshop of Duresme, and Nicolas Bisshop of Rochester. Printed by Edward Whitchurch. Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum. 1541.” The Colophon—“ The end of the New Testament and of the whole Byble Fynisshed in November 1540,” though not published till 1541.55

This was in truth another triumph over the enemy, one of most grievous annoyance to Master Gardiner ; and this he will not fail to discover on the first occasion in which he can find his brethren assembled, after his return from abroad. Some poor petty spite was indeed already discoverable. The reader will recollect of the homage falsely imputed to Henry, by an engraved frontispiece to the three last Bibles ; in which Crumwell and Cranmer are represented at full length, above, as receiving the Bible from the King, and below, as giving it to the people. At the feet of each figure, it will be remembered, was his shield or coat of arms. The frontispiece, esteemed a treasure of its kind, must not be thrown away.

53 There is an instance of this edition in the library of the University of Edinburgh. The title-page and colophon are as above, and it might be supposed, at first sight, that all was right; but upon careful inspection it is found to be made up of two editions, or that of this year and the next in 1541 ; and, what renders the book more remarkable, it is a yellow paper copy, having only the last leaf of Cranmer's preface, and therefore none of those urgent arguments why all should read. We have never seen or heard of a similar book ; so that it may be received as a proof that the lint was conveyed to the paper after the sheets were printed off, and not before.

But the arms of Crumwell were now erased ! Still there stands the figure intended for him, and so it continued to do, throughout seven editions ! That is, three of them with his shield and four without. But if this was the first with the shield erased, it was the first also with Tunstal's name, and the figure of Crumwell, now so well known, standing by. And is Saul also among the Prophets ? might not the people have exclaimed, and perhaps did ; though we have yet to hear again of Tunstal and Heath's feigned obedience. There had been no time left for them to alter the translation. The book was laid before them, no doubt, as it had come from the press. A title was wanting to suit the moment, and

. Henry now, his own Vicar-general, commanded the present

It will make way for two other editions from Cranmer. In addition to these four Bibles, it is said that there was a fifth, and in five volumes as small as sexto-decimo, printed by Redman ; 56 but, at all events, there was a New Testament in quarto, with Erasmus and Tyndale in parallel columns. Thus amidst all the turmoil, and in spite of foes, the cause went forward, and still from conquering to conquer.



56 Dibdin's Typog. Antiq., iii. p. 235.





AFTER the fall of Crumwell, after the royal marriage of last year, and some degree of amicable intercourse commenced between the Emperor and Henry; the Norfolk, Gardiner, and Tunstal party may be considered as at the height of their power ; so that whatever shall take place with regard to the printing or publication of the Sacred Volume, becomes the more remarkable, and especially when viewed in connexion with civil affairs.

Although the spirit of the English nation was now so crushed, or sunk, under the despotic sway of her King, in the month of April an inconsiderable rebellion broke out in Yorkshire, but it was soon suppressed, and the leader, Sir John Neville, with several other gentlemen, put to death. This rising having excited fresh fear respecting the influence or intrigues of Cardinal Pole, “the Lady of Sarum,” or Countess of Salisbury, his aged mother, the last of the Plantagenets, on the 27th of May was beheaded in the Tower. Though in her seventieth year, owing to her hold resistance of the sentence, and the bungling barbarity of the executioner, every spectator must have been horrified.

At this period, all the powers of Europe, but ill at ease, were once more verging towards a state of open war. No man, however, could have divined, how all the parties would ultimately arrange themselves into two hostile bands; and we shall have to wait till the spring of 1543 before they have assumed their respective and memorable positions. We refer not to England and Scotland only, or to France and Spain, but also to Germany, Italy, and even the Grand Turk.

In the meanwhile, from the steps that Henry had taken, Scotland, for some years, had proved a very awkward neighbour. IIis Majesty had often felt no small solicitude that his nephew, James V., should follow his example, for so long as the Scottish bishops reigned pre

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9 now far from cordiality, and though the French facta wcvuland had been weakened ever since the battle of Pavia; at the present moment, if James were in league with Francis, he might operate not only in the way of diversion, but aggression. With the ostensible purpose, therefore, of receiving the submission of his subjects, and quieting the northern counties, but chiefly in order to obtain a personal interview with James, the King of England proposed to meet him at York; and the Scottish monarch having at least appeared not unwilling, Henry set forward in his progress.

During the King's absence from London upon this journey, it may first be observed, that the ill-adjusted state of the European powers became very evident. Although Henry and the Emperor were professedly at peace, considerable discontent was expressed by the English Council respecting our King's intercourse with the Low Countries. The Princess Regent there was harassing the English Merchant-Adventurers, and even impeding supplies of copper intended for his Majesty's personal use. Gardiner, too, though he had left England about the middle of November, at the end of the year bad not come to a personal audience with the Emperor. 2

As for Charles and Francis they were on the eve of a rupture. After the former had been permitted to pass through France, and so deceived her King, he at last came forward with the following proposal :

“ Of two daughters which I have, I am willing to bestow the elder in marriage to the Duke of Orleans, and with her for dowry the State of Flanders, with the style and title of King ; so shall Francis have two sons, both kings and neighbours. As for Milan, let them not think that I will ever part with it, since it were nothing else than to disjoint all my estates. And let it not grieve the King, for I had it by good and lawful succession, and possess it as belonging to the Empire. Take Milan from me, and you take away my passage between Flanders and Spain, Italy, Sicily, and Germany. This is that I had to say, and if it please you not, there is no occasion to speak more of the business.”

Francis at once in a passion and affronted, returned this answer :“ Since he might not have his inheritance, he would have nothing else ; neither would he care to speak any more of peace.'

"3 We shall find him before long trying to negotiate with England.

Meanwhile, Henry being on his journey to York, by the month of August, he sends to Audley, the Lord Chancellor, but with special charge of secrecy, for an ample safe-conduct to be sent for James and

i Gov. State Papers, i., p. 665-674. See before also, p. 116., note 39.

2 Acts of Privy Council, vii. p. 100. He was with the Emperor at the Diet of Ratisbou in March this year. Idem, p. 152. 3 Herbert

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