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Dr. Roger Fenton, it has been supposed ; if so, Fellow of Pembroke Hall,

Cambridge ; and Minister of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London. MICHAEL RABBETT, B.D., was Rector of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, London. Dr. Thomas SANDERSON, of Balliol College, Oxford ? Archdeacon of Rochester

in 1606. WILLIAM Dakins, B.D., then Greek Lecturer, Cambridge, and afterwards junior

Dean in 1606. He had been chosen for his skill in the original languages, but died February 1607."

To these men the King is reported to have given the following Instructions or Rules :- 1. The ordinary Bible read in the Church, commonly called the Bishops' Bible, to be followed, and as little altered as the original will permit. 2. The names of the Prophets and the holy writers, with the other names in the text, to be retained as near as may be, according as they are vulgarly used. 3. The old ecclesiastical words to be kept : as the word Church not to be translated CONGREGATION, &c. 4. When any word hath divers significations, that to be kept which hath been most commonly used by the most ancient Fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place, and the analogy of faith. 5. The division of the chapters to be altered either not at all, or as little as may be, if necessity so require. 6. No marginal notes at all to be affixed, but only for the explanation of the Hebrew or Greek words, which cannot, without some circumlocution, so briefly and fitly be expressed in the text. 7. Such quotations of places to be marginally set down, as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another. 8. Every particular man of each company to take the same chapter, or chapters ; and, having translated or amended them severally by himself where he thinketh good, all to meet together, confer what they have done, and agree for their part what shall stand. 9. As one company hath dispatched any one book in this manner, they shall send it to the rest, to be consi. dered of seriously and judiciously : for his Majesty is careful in this point. 10. If any company, upon the review of the book so sent, shall doubt or differ upon any places, to send them word thereof, note the places, and therewithal send their reasons : to which, if they conseut not, the difference to be compounded at the general meeting, which is to be of the chief persons of each company at the end of the work. 11. When any place of special obscurity is doubted of, letters to be directed by authority, to send to any learned man in the land, for his judgment in such a place. 12. Letters to be sent from every bishop to the rest of his clergy, admonishing them of this translation in haud ; and to move and charge as many as, being skilful in the tongues, have taken pains in that kind, to send his particular observations to the company, either at Westminster, Cambridge, or Oxford. 13. The Directors in each company to be the Deans of Westminster and Chester for that place ; and the King's Professors in the Hebrew and Greek in each University. 14. These translations to be used, when they agree better with the text than the Bishops' Bible : viz., 1. Tyndale's ; 2. Matthew's ; 3. Corerdale's ; 4. Whitchurche's (i. e. Cranmer's); 5. The Genera.

The authority, however, or the accuracy of these Rules is considerably shaken by the account delivered in to the Synod of Dort on the 20th of

1 Wood's Fasti and Athena-Nowcourt's Repertorium-Le Neves Fasti-Todd's Vindication-Whittaker, and several other authorities compared. In addition to these forty men, engaged on the SACRED TEXT, seven more, or the second class at Cambridge, were put to the dpocrypha ; viz. John Duport, Dr. Branthwaite, Jeremiah Radcliffe, Dr. Samuel Ward, Andiew Downes, the Greek Professor, Mr. Ward, and John Boys, who, however, afterwards was engaged on the Sacred text. N.B. Although tister four were said to have been named, only forty-seren sat down to the work.

November 1618. They state that only seven rules were ultimately prescribed, and that after each individual had finished his task, tudre men (not six) assembling together revised the whole. Their first, second, and fourth rules coincide with the first, sixth, and seventh of the preceding list.

It is of more importance to remark, that it has been imagined there were other words, or a list, to the number of fourteen or sixteen attached to the third rule, and specified by the King. But this, as well as that the instructions were drawn up by him personally, strongly appears to be a popular mistake. At least, after minute inquiry, we have found no such list. Meanwhile, the following statement most probably accounts for the rumour. The learned Henry Jessey being engaged for many years in critical inquiries, drew up an essay for the amendment of this last revision of the Bible, and in conjunction with Mr. John Row, Professor of Hebrew, the Principal of King's College, Aberdeen, he aimed after a new version. In his Essay, he says that one Dr. Hill declared in open assembly that Bancroft“ would needs have the version speak the prelatical language ; and to that end altered it in fourteen several places ; and that Dr. Miles Smith, one of the translators, complained of the Bishop's alterations, but said“ he is so potent that there is no contradicting him."

But whatever dubiety may rest on the Instructions, such were the Men appointed. Most of them were already in independent circumstances, though “sundry” of them were not so, and the posts to which any of them succeeded afterwards, are noted under each of their names. These appointments, however, it will be obvious, had occasioned no personal expense to his Majesty, as they were simply certain casualties, arising from death or otherwise, which required to be filled up, at all events. But in the King's letter there was another point urged by him, and which, it may have seemed strange, he left Bancroft to explain to all his brethren. The fact was, that some money did appear to be requisite, in the first instance, and his Majesty not choosing to signify in writing that he had none of his own, or that the Lords in the Privy Council would not agree to his drawing on them, or in other words, on the public purse, he left another man to explain the dilemma ; and, through him, now turned to the Bishops and Deans, in the hope that they would furnish supplies. The sum, which will be specified by Bancroft, was not large. It was only a thousand marks, £660, 13s. 4d., or precisely the same amount which he alone had spent in repairing his palace, since he had been made Bishop of London. Less than the twentieth part of this sum, therefore, was all that could fall to his share, even should the Deans and Chapters decline to a man. The Bishop, however, being under orders, must, of course, immediately forward his circular as to this point, which it seems he did, and on the same day with his other letter, already quoted. The following was that which he sent to John Jegon, Bishop

of Norwich ; and as he was to warn all the Bishops, it must be presumed that they were all warned in the same terms.

“ There are many, as your lordship perceiveth, who are to be employed in this translating of the Bible, and sundry of them must, of necessity, have their charges borne ; which his Majesty was very ready, of his most princely disposition, to have borne, but some of my lords, AS THINGS NOW go, did hold it inconcenient. Whereupon it was left to me, to move all my brethren, the Bishops, and likewise every several dean and chapter, to contribute to this work. According therefore to my duty, I heartily pray your lordship, not only to think yourself, what is meet for you to give for this purpose, but likewise to acquaint your dean and chapter, not only with the said clause in his Majesty's letter, but likewise with the meaning of it, that they may agree upon such a sum as they mean to contribute. I do not think that a thousand marks will finish the work to be employed as aforesaid. Whereof your lordship, with your dean and chapter, having due consideration, I must require you, in his Majesty's name, according to his good pleasure in that behalf, that, as soon as possibly you can, you send me word what shall be expected from you, and your said dean and chapter. For I am to acquaint his Majesty with erery man's liberality towards this most godly work. And thus not doubting of your especial care for the accomplishment of the premises, and desiring your lordship to note the date to me of your receipt of this letter, I commit your lordship to the tuition of Almighty God. From Fulham this 31st of July 1604."12

Thus all the Bishops were warned, and no orders could be more explicit or more peremptory. Jegon marked on his letter “Delibat apud Ludham 16th August 1604,” or Ludham Hall, a seat of the Bishop of Norwich ; but when we turn to inquire for his reply, or indeed for that of any other man, whether Bishop, or Dean, or of any Chapter, we search in vain! From the bench entire, we hear not one echo; for if there was even one reply, it has never been produced, nor has such a thing ever been found among any of the manuscripts. The sequel will shew that there probably never was one, but certainly, at all events, no money contributed ; so that we are thus left free to pursue our narrative. The royal orders of Henry the Eighth on this subject, he acknowledged himself, late in life, had but a very transient effect ; but this of James the First, had none at all. One solitary letter he issued at the outset, for he never wrote a second, and having once let the Bishops and Deans alone, it was vain to expect any aid from himself. He was even now, and far more so ever after, plunged in debt; but so far as money was concerned, when we come to the actual publication of the Scriptures in 1611, that will be the proper time to observe how his Majesty had gone on, from this year to that. Providentially, most of the translators were already in situations, and with regard to some others, we shall find Boys, one of the most able among them all, if not the most diligent, eating his “ commons first at one College table, and then at another, in Cambridge, during the entire period in which he was there engaged.

12 The original has been printed only by Lewis. JEGON was formerly Master of Bennet Col. lege, afterwards Dean of Norwich and now Bishop, since January 1603. Bancroft, it will be remembered, was now only acting as Primate, but very soon to be elected ; and it is not unworthy of notice, that only one instance has occurred before, of letters craving money having passed between parties occupying precisely the same situations. The reader may recollect that this was when Archbishop Warham was addressing Nix, then Bishop of Norwich. But then, it was with a view to burning the Scriptures, when there was a ready and cordial response, with a contribution, and great zeal displayed on both sides. We have now, therefore, to witness what was the result of an application for an opposite purpose ; only it is curious cnough that in the only recorded instance in both cases, it should be the Primate and the Bishop of Norwich. No other having yet been found in any of our manuscript collections, the contrast is, as it were, forced upon us.

It has been questioned when these men sat down to their work; whether immediately, or not till 1607; but to suppose that they did not commence till then, is out of the question, and indeed Anthony Wood gives 1607, as the termination of their first revision. Livelie, a fine and ardent scholar answering to his name, would certainly not delay ;13 and above all, the original proposer of the work, Dr. Rainolds, was busy, as we have seen, to his dying day, in 1607. The different parties might not all commence at the same moment, but, on the whole, it may be presumed that, with the Hebrew of the Old Testament and the Greek of the New before them all along, the first revision of the Sacred text, by the forty-seven, occupied about four years ; the second examination by twelve, or two selected out of each company, nine months more, and the sheets passing through the press, other two years, when the Bible of 1611 was finished and first issued.

In confirmation of this statement, we shall have occasion to refer to the only ma ript memoir, known to ist, of any of the translators, which affords information ; though before doing so, it may be remarked, that we are now to be furnished with evidence in proof, that no money had been paid to the forty-seven, or the six companies when working separately, at Westminster, Cambridge, and Oxford. But upon the termination of their labours, when two out of each company, or twelve in all, were selected, and met in London, pecuniary supply, to a moderate extent, had become necessary. The entire Bible, as it came from the forty-seven, was now before these twelve men, who met at Stationers' Hall, and were thus daily occupied in their second revision for nine months; or thirty-nine weeks. They were paid weekly, though certainly not by his Majesty, nor by any of the prelates or parties, to whom he had so urgently applied. A sum, however, of more than “a thousand marks" had been at last required, and the only question will be, from whence it came.

The memoir to which we have alluded is that of John Bois or Boys already mentioned. Born at Elmset, near Hadleigh in Suffolk, he was taught the first rudiments of learning by his father, William Boys, rector of

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13 Livelie or Lively, the Hebrew professor, living contented with his stipend, after many troubles, and the loss of his wife, the mother of a numerous family, was appointed one of the translators; and taking a very deep interest in the work, he was well provided for by Barlow, not King James; but in May 1605 he died by a quinsey, after only four days' illness, leaving cleven orphans, “ destitute of necessaries for their maintenance, hut only such as God and good friends should provide." See his funeral sermon, 10th May 1605, by Thomas Playsere, Lady Margaret's professor in Cambridge. Printed by Thomas Legat; 1611.

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West Stow in that county ; and even when yet a boy, his acquaintance with Hebrew was remarkable, being able to read the Old Testament with fluency in the original, as well as to write the language with elegance. At the age of fourteen he was admitted of St. John's College, Cambridge, where with Greek he became equally familiar; and for ten years out of the twenty-two, in which he resided in that College, he was the chief Greek lecturer. Voluntarily he read a lecture in the same language, for some years, at four in the morning, attended by many fellows, among whom was the well-known Thomas Gataker. His life, at once curious and interesting, by Dr. Anthony Walker of St. John's, is among the Harleian manuscripts, proving that his interest in the translation of the Bible was conspicuous.14

“ When it pleased God,” says the writer,“ to move K. James to that excellent work, the translating of the Bible ; when the translators were to be chosen for Cambridge, he (Boys) was sent for thither by them, therein employed and chosen one ; some University men thereat repining, it may be not more able, yet more ambitious to have had a share in that service,) and disdaining that it should be thought that they needed any help from the country; forgetting that Tully was the same at Tusculum, he was at Rome.”—“ All the time he was about his own part, his diet was given him at St. John's, where he abode all the week till Saturday night, and then went home to discharge his cure, (at Boxworth, about seven miles distant,) returning thence on Monday morning."

Not yet satisfied,—" When he had finished his own part, at the earnest request of him to whom it was assigned, he undertook a second, and then was in

commons' at another college.” This last must have been the sacred text itself, from 1 Chronicles to Ecclesiastes, a task more congenial with his mind as a Christian. The representation then given in the manuscript, though incorrect as to the number of revisors and their paymaster, we first give entire

Four years he spent in this service, at the end whereof, (the whole work being finished, and three copies of the whole Bible being sent to London, one from Cambridge, a second from Oxford, and a third from Westminster,) a new choice was to be made of six in all, two out of each company, to review the whole work, and extract one out of all three, to be committed to the press. For the dispatch of this business Mr. Downes and he, out of the Cambridge company, were sent for up to London, where meeting their four fellow-labourers, they went daily to Stationers' Hall, and in three quarters of a year fulfilled their task. All which time they received duly thirty shillings each of them, by the week, from the Company of Stationers ; though BEFORE they had nothing," but (adds the other manuscript) “ the self-rewarding ingenious industry. Whilst they were employed in this last business, he, and he only, took notes of their proceedings, which he diligently kept to his dying day."15

The expression a new choice was made of six in all, two out of each company,” contradicts itself. There were six companies, and there must

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14 MS. Harl. 7053, in thirty-eight quarto pages. It has been once printed in Peck's Des. Curiosa, from a copy among the Baker MSS.

15 A very strange mistake of Lewis has been copied by many authors up to the present time. Speaking of the revisors, he says—“ All which time they received thirty pounds each of them, by the week !" This would have been above £7000, had there been only six, but as there were twelve, €14,000 for nine months' work! The manuscript is quite distinct, viz. 308.

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