## Signals and Boundaries: Building Blocks for Complex Adaptive SystemsComplex adaptive systems (cas), including ecosystems, governments, biological cells, and markets, are characterized by intricate hierarchical arrangements of boundaries and signals. In ecosystems, for example, niches act as semi-permeable boundaries, and smells and visual patterns serve as signals; governments have departmental hierarchies with memoranda acting as signals; and so it is with other cas. Despite a wealth of data and descriptions concerning different cas, there remain many unanswered questions about "steering" these systems. In Holland lays out a path for developing the framework that emphasizes agents, niches, theory, and mathematical models. He discusses, among other topics, theory construction; signal-processing agents; networks as representations of signal/boundary interaction; adaptation; recombination and reproduction; the use of tagged urn models (adapted from elementary probability theory) to represent boundary hierarchies; finitely generated systems as a way to tie the models examined into a single framework; the framework itself, illustrated by a simple finitely generated version of the development of a multi-celled organism; and Markov processes. |

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### Contents

1 The Roles of Signals and Boundaries | 1 |

General Principles | 35 |

3 Agents and Signal Processing | 57 |

4 Networks and Flows | 85 |

5 Adaptation | 99 |

6 Recombination and Reproduction | 117 |

7 Urn Models of Boundaries | 131 |

8 Boundary Hierarchies | 145 |

11 Grammars as Finitely Generated Systems | 205 |

12 An Overarching SignalBoundary Framework | 217 |

13 A Dynamic Generated System Model of Ontogeny | 229 |

14 A Complete Dynamic Generated System for SignalBoundary Studies | 245 |

15 Mathematical Models of Generated Structures | 265 |

16 A Short Version of the Whole | 281 |

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303 | |

### Other editions - View all

Signals and Boundaries: Building Blocks for Complex Adaptive Systems John H. Holland Limited preview - 2014 |

Signals and Boundaries: Building Blocks for Complex Adaptive Systems John H. Holland Limited preview - 2012 |