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confirm their propositions by infallible demon- a new substitution of others in their places, what strations. And likewise in Trivials, such les- hope may we have of any benefit of learning by sons and directions are delivered unto us, as will this alteration? assuredly, as soon as the new effect very near, or as much altogether, as every are brought ad ȧxμv by the inventors and their faculty doth promise. Now, in case we should followers, by an interchangeable course of concur to do as you advise, which is, to renounce natural things, they will fall by degrees in our common notions, and cancel all our theorems, oblivion to be buried, and so in continuance to axioms, rules, and tenets, and so to come babes perish outright; and that perchance upon the "ad regnum naturæ," as we are willed by scrip- like to your present pretences, by proposal of tures to come "ad regnum cœlorum." There is some means to advance all our knowledge to a nothing more certain, in my understanding, than higher pitch of perfectness; for still the same that it would instantly bring us to barbarism, defects that antiquity found, will reside in manand, after many thousand years, leave us more kind, and therefore other issues of their actions, unprovided of theorical furniture, than we are at devices, and studies, are not to be expected than this present: For that were indeed to become is apparent, by records, were in former times "Tabula rasa," when we shall leave no impres- observed. I remember here a note which Patersion of any former principles, but be driven to culus made of the incomparable wits of the begin the world again, to travel by trials of Grecians and Romans, in their flourishing state; actions and sense, (which are your proofs by that there might be this reason of their notable particulars,) what to place in "intellectu" for our downfall, in their issue that came after, because general conceptions, it being a maxim of all by nature, "Quod summo studio petitum est, men's approving; "in intellectu nihil esse quod ascendit in summum, difficilisque in perfecto mora non prius fuit in sensu." And so in appearance est;" insomuch that men perceiving that they it would befall us, that till Plato's year be come could not go farther, being come to the stop, they about, our insight in learning would be of less turned back again of their own accord, forsaking reckoning than now it is accounted. As for that those studies that are most in request, and bewhich you inculcate, of a knowledge more taking themselves to new endeavours, as it the excellent than now is among us, which expe- thing they sought had been by prevention forerience might produce, if we would but essay to prized by others. So it fared in particular with extract it out of nature by particular probations, the eloquence of that age, that when their sucit is no more upon the matter, but to incite us cessors found that hardly they could equal, by unto that which, without instigation, by a natu- no means excel their predecessors, they began to ral instinct men will practise themselves; for it neglect the study thereof, and speak for many cannot in reason be otherwise thought, but that hundred years in a rustical manner, till this later there are infinite, in all parts of the world, (for resolution brought the wheel about again, by we may not in this case confine our cogitations inflaming gallant spirits to give the onset a fresh, within the bounds of Europe,) which embrace the with straining and striving to climb unto the top course which you purpose, with all diligence and height of perfection, not in that gift alone, and care, that any ability can perform. For but in every other skill in any part of learning. every man is born with an appetite of knowledge, For I do not hold it any erroneous conceit to wherewith he cannot be glutted, but still, as in a think of every science, that as now they are prodropsy, thirst after more. But yet, why men fessed, so they have been before in all precedent should so hearken to and such persuasions, as ages, though not alike in all places, nor at all wholly to abolish those settled opinions, and times alike in one and the same; but according general theorems, to which they have attained by to the changes and turning of times with a more their own and their ancestors' experience, I see exact and plain, or with a more rude and obscure nothing alleged to induce me to think it. More- kind of teaching. over, I may speak, as I suppose, with good probability, that if we should make a mental survey, what is like to be effected all the world over; those five or six inventions which you have selected, and imagined to be but of modern standing, would make but a slender show among so many hundreds of all kinds of natures, which are daily brought to light by the enforcement of wit or casual events, and may be compared, or partly preferred, above those that you have named. But were it so here, that all were admitted that you can require, for the augmentation of our knowledge, and that all our theorems and general positions were utterly extinguished with

And if the question should be asked, what proof I have of it; I have the doctrine of Aristotle, and of the deepest learned clerks, of whom we have any means to take any notice; that as there is of other things, so there is of sciences, "ortus et interitus:" which is also the meaning (if I should expound it) of "nihil novum sub sole," and is as well to be applied" ad facta," as "ad dicta; ut nihil neque dictum neque factum, quod non est dictum aut factum prius." I have farther for my warrant, that famous complaint of Solomon to his son, against the infinite making of books in his time, of which, in all congruity, great part were of observations and instructions

in all kind of literature, and of those there is not now so much as one pamphlet (only some parcels of the Bible excepted) remaining to posterity. As then there was not in like manner to be found any footing of millions of authors that were long before Solomon, and yet we must give credit to that which he affirmed; that whatsoever was then or before, it could never be truly pronounced of it, "Behold, this is new." Whereupon I must for my final conclusion infer, seeing all the endeavours, study, and knowledge of mankind, in whatsoever art or science, have ever been the same as they are at this present, though full of mutabilities, according to the changes and accidental occasions of ages and countries, and clerks' dispositions; which can never but be subject to intention and remission, both in their devices and practices of their knowledge. If now we should accord in opinion with you; first, to condemn our present knowledge of doubt and incertitude (which you confer but by averment) without other force of argument, and then to disclaim all our axioms and maxims, and general assertions that are left by tradition from our elders to us; which, (for so it is to be pretended) have passed all probations of the sharpest wits that ever were Abecedarii, by the frequent spelling of particulars, to come to the notice of new generals, and so afresh to create new principles of sciences, the end of all would be, that when we should be dispossessed of the learning which we have, all our consequent travail will but help us in a circle, to conduct us to the place from whence we set forwards, and bring us to the happiness to be restored "in integrum," which will require as many ages as have marched before us, to be perfectly achieved. And this I write, with no dislike of increasing our knowledge with new-found devices, (which is undoubtedly a practice of high commendation) in regard of the benefit they will yield for the present, that the world hath ever been, and will forever continue, very full of such devisers; whose industry that way hath been very obstinate and eminent, and hath produced strange effects, above the reach and the hope of men's common capacities; and yet our notions and theorems have always kept in grace both with them, and with the rarest that ever were named among the learned.

By this you see to what boldness I am brought by your kindness; that (if I seem to be too saucy in this contradiction) it is the opinion that I hold of your noble disposition, and of the freedom in these cases, that you will afford your special friend, that hath induced me to it. And although I myself, like a carrier's horse, cannot baulk the beaten way, in which I have been trained, yet since it is my censure of your Cogitata that I must tell you, to be p.ain, you have very much wronged yourself and the world, to smother such a treasure so long in your coffer: for though I

stand well assured (for the tenor and subject of your main discourse) you are not able to impanel a jury in any university that will give up a verdict to acquit you of error; yet it cannot be gainsaid, that all your treatise over doth abound with choice conceit of the present state of learning, and with so worthy contemplations of the means to procure it, as may persuade with any student to look more narrowly to his business, not only by aspiring to the greatest perfection, of that which is now-a-days divulged in the sciences, but by diving yet deeper, as it were, into the bowels and secrets of nature, and by enforcing of the powers of his judgment and wit to learn of St. Paul, "Consectari meliora dona:" which course, would to God (to whisper so much into your ear) you had followed at the first, when you fell to the study of such a study as was not worthy such a student. Nevertheless, being so as it is, that you are therein settled, and your country soundly served; I cannot but wish with all my heart, as I do very often, that you may gain a fit reward to the full of your deserts, which I hope will come with heaps of happiness and honour.

Yours to be used, and commanded, THO. BODLEY.

From Fulham, Feb. 19, 1607.

SIR,-One kind of boldness doth draw on another; insomuch as methinks I should offend to signify, that before the transcript of your book be fitted for the press, it will be requisite for you to cast a censor's eye upon the style and the elocution; which, in the framing of some periods, and in divers words and phrases, will hardly go for current, if the copy brought to me be just the same that you would publish.




Now, your lordship hath been so long in the church and the palace, disputing between kings and popes, methinks you should take pleasure to look into the field, and refresh your mind with some matter of philosophy; though that science be now, through age, waxed a child again, and left to boys and young men. And because you are wont to make me believe you took liking to my writings, I send you some of this vacation fruits, and thus much more for my mind and purpose. "I hasten not to publish, perishing I would prevent." And I am forced to respect as well my times, as the matter; for with me it is thus, and I think with all men, in my case: if I

bind myself to an argument, it loadeth my mind; | (as for any impediment it might be to the applause but if I rid my mind of the present Cogitation, it and celebrity of my work, it moveth me not) but is rather a recreation: this hath put me into these as it may hinder the fruit and good which may miscellanies, which I purpose to suppress, if God come of a quiet and calm passage to the good give me leave to write a just and perfect volume port to which it is bound, I hold it a just respect, of philosophy, which I go on with, though slowly. so as to fetch a fair wind I go not too far about. I send not your lordship too much, lest it may But troth is, I shall have no occasion to meet glut you. Now, let me tell you what my desire them in the way, except it be, as they will needs is. If your lordship be so good now as when confederate themselves with Aristotle, who, you you were the good Dean of Westminster, my know, is intemperately magnified with the schoolrequest to you is, that not by pricks, but by notes, men, and is also allied (as I take it) to the Jesuits you would mark unto me whatsoever shall seem by Faber, who was a companion of Loyola, and unto you either not current in the style, or harsh a great Aristotelian. I send you at this time, the to credit and opinion, or inconvenient for the per- only part which hath any harshness, and yet I son of the writer, for no man can be judge and framed to myself an opinion, that whosoever party; and when our minds judge by reflection allowed well of that preface, which you so much on ourselves, they are more subject to error. And commend, will not dislike, or at least ought not though, for the matter itself, my judgment be in to dislike, this other speech of preparation; for it is some things fixed, and not accessible by any written out of the same spirit, and out of the same man's judgment that goeth not my way, yet even necessity. Nay, it doth more fully lay open, that in those things the admonition of a friend may the question between me and the ancients is not make me express myself diversely. I would have of the virtue of the race, but of the rightness of come to your lordship, but that I am hastening to the way. And, to speak truth, it is to the other my house in the country, and so I commend your but as Palma to Pugnus, part of the same thing, lordship to God's goodness. more large. You conceive aright, that in this, and the other, you have commission to impart and communicate them to others, according to your discretion; other matters I write not of. Myself am like the miller of Huntingdon, that was wont to pray for peace among the willows; for, while the winds blew the wind-mills wrought, and the water-mill was less customed. So I see that controversies of religion must hinder the advancement of sciences. Let me conclude with my perpetual wish towards yourself, that the approbation of yourself by your own discreet and tem perate carriage, may restore you to your country, and your friends to your society. And so I com mend you to God's goodness. Gray's Inn, this 10th of October, 1609.

After he had impARTED TO HIM A WRITING


In respect of my going down to my house in the country, I shall have miss of my papers, which, I pray you, therefore, return unto me. You are, I bear you witness, slothful, and you help me nothing; so as I am half in conceit that you affect not the argument; for myself, I know well you love and affect. I can say no more to you, but, "non canimus surdis, respondent omnia silvæ." If you be not of the lodgings chalked up, (whereof I speak in my preface,) I am but to


pass by your door. But if I had you but a fort- SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. MATTHEW, TOUCHnight at Gorhambury, I would make you tell me another tale, or else I would add a cogitation against libraries, and be revenged on you that way: I pray you send me some good news of Sir Thomas Smith, and commend me very kindly to him. So I rest.


I plainly perceive by your affectionate writing touching my work, that one and the same thing affecteth us both, which is the good end to which it is dedicated for as to any ability of mine, it cannot merit that degree of approbation. For your caution for church men, and church matters,

MR. MATTHEW, I heartily thank you for your letter of the 10th of February, and I am glad to receive from you matter both of encouragement and advertisement, touching my writings. For my part, I do wish that, since there is almost no "lumen siccum" in the world, but all "madidum, maceratum," infused in the affections, and bloods, or humours, that these things of mine had those separations that might make them more acceptable; so that they claim not so much acquaintance of the present times, as they be thereby the less like to last. And to show you that I have some purpose to new mould them, 1 send you a leaf or two of the preface, carrying some figure of the whole work; wherein I purpose to take that which is real and effectual of both writings, and chiefly

to add pledge, if not payment to my promise. I send you, also, a memorial of Queen Elizabeth, to requite your Eulogy of the late Duke of Florence's felicity. Of this, when you were here, I showed you some model, though, at that time, methought you were as willing to hear Julius Cæsar as Queen Elizabeth commended. But this which I send is more full, and hath more of the narrative; and farther hath one part that I think will not be disagreeable, either to you, or that place, being the true tracts of her proceeding towards the Catholics, which are infinitely mistaken. And though I do not imagine they will pass allowance there, yet they will gain upon excuse. I find Mr. Lezure to use you well, (I mean his tongue, of you,) which shows you either honest or wise. But this I speak merely; for, in good faith, I conceive hope, that you will so govern yourself, as we may take you as assuredly for a good subject, and patriot, as you take yourself for a good Christian; and so we may enjoy your company, and you your conscience, if it may no otherwise be. For my part, assure yourself that, as we say in the law, "mutatis mutandis," my love and good wishes to you are diminished. And so I remain.


lords, and towards the end of the last term, the manner, also, in particular, was spoken of; that is, that Mr. Solicitor should be made your majesty's sergeant, and I solicitor, for so it was thought best, to sort with both our gifts and faculties, for the good of your service. And of this resolution both court and country took knowledge. Neither was this any invention or project of mine own, but moved from my lords; and I think, first, from my lord chancellor. Whereupon resting, your majesty well knoweth, I never opened my mouth for the greater place, though I am sure I had two circumstances, that Mr. Attorney now is, could not allege. The one, nine years' service of the crown; the other, being cousin-german to the Lord of Salisbury, whom your majesty seemeth and trusteth so much. But for less place, I conceived, it was meant me. But after that Mr. Attorney Hubbert was placed, I heard no more of my preferment, but it seemed to be at a stop, to my great disgrace and discouragement. For, (gracious sovereign,) if still when the waters are stirred, another shall be put before me, your majesty had need work a miracle, or else I shall be still a lame man to do your majesty service. And, therefore, my most humble suit to your majesty is, that this which seemed to me was intended, may speedily be performed. And I hope my former service shall be but beginnings to better, when I am better strengthened. For sure I am, no man's heart is fuller (I say not but many have greater hearts, but I say, not fuller) of love and duty towards your majesty, and your children, as I hope time will manifest against envy and detraction, if any be. To conclude, I most humbly crave pardon


How honestly ready I have been, most gracious sovereign, to do your majesty humble service to the best of my power, and in a manner beyond my power, (as I now stand,) I am not so unfortunate but your majesty knoweth. For, both in for my boldness, and restthe commission of union, (the labour whereof, for men of my profession, rested most upon my hand,) and this last parliament in the bill of the subsidy,


(both body and preamble,) in the bill of attain- SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE KING, HIS SUIT TO ders of Tresham, and the rest, in the matter of purveyance, in the ecclesiastical petitions, in the grievances, and the like; as I was ever careful (and not without good success) sometimes to put forward that which was good, sometimes to keep back that which was not so good; so your majesty was pleased to accept kindly of my services, and to say to me, such conflicts were the wars of peace, and such victories, the victories of peace; and, therefore, such servants that obtained them were, by kings that reign in peace, no less to be esteemed than services of commanders in the wars. In all which, nevertheless, I can challenge to myself no sufficiency, but that I was diligent and reasonably happy to execute those directions which I received either immediately from your royal mouth, or from my Lord of Salisлnry; at which time it pleased your majesty to promise and assure me, that upon the remove of the then attorney, I should not be forgotten, but brought into ordinary place. And this was after confirmed to me by many of my


Your great and princely favours towards me in advancing me to place, and that which is to me of no less comfort, your majesty's benign and gracious acceptation from time to time of my poor services, much above the merit and value of them, hath almost brought me to an opinion, that I may sooner perchance be wanting to myself in not asking, than find your majesty's goodness wanting to me, in any my reasonable and modest desires. And, therefore, perceiving how at this time preferments of law fly about my ears, to some above me, and to some below me, I did conceive your majesty may think it rather a kind of dulness, or want of faith, than modesty, if I should not come with my pitcher to Jacob's Well, as others do. Wherein I shall propound to your majesty, that which tendeth not so much to the raising my fortune, as to the settling of my mind, being


book that endeavoured to verify, "Misera fæmina" (the addition of the pope's bull) upon Queen Elizabeth; I did write a few lines in her memorial, which I thought you would be well pleased to read, both for the argument, and because you were wont to bear affection to my pen. ut aliud ex alio," if it came handsomely to pass, I "Verum, would be glad the President De Thou (who hath written a history, as you know, of that fame and diligence) saw it; chiefly because I know not, whether it may not serve him for some use in his story; wherein I would be glad he did right to the truth, and to the memory of that lady, as 1 perceive by that he hath already written, he is well inclined to do; I would be glad also, it were some occasion (such as absence may permit) of some acquaintance or mutual notice between us. For, though he hath many ways the precedence, (chiefly in worth,) yet this is common to them both, that we may serve our sovereigns in places of law eminent, and not ourselves only, but that our fathers did so before us; and, lastly, that both of us love learning, and liberal sciences, which was ever a bond of friendship, in the greatest distances of places. But of this I make no farther request, than your own occasions and respects (to me unknown) may further or limit, my principal purpose being to salute you, and to send you this token, whereunto I will add my very kind commendations to my lady. And so commit you both to God's holy protection.

sometimes assailed with this cogitation, that by reason of my slowness to sue and apprehend sudden occasions, keeping on one plain course of painful service, I may (in fine dierum) be in danger to be neglected and forgotten. And if that should be, then were it much better for me now while I stand in your majesty's good opinion, (though unworthy,) and have some reputation in the world, to give over the course I am in, and to make proof to do you some honour by my pen; either by writing some faithful narrative of your happy (though not untraduced) times, or by recompiling your laws, which, I perceive, your majesty laboureth with, and hath in your head, (as Jupiter had Pallas,) or some other the like work, (for without some endeavour to do you honour I would not live,) than to spend my wits and time in this laborious place, wherein now I serve, if it shall be deprived of those outward ornaments, and inward comforts, which it was wont to have in respect of an assured succession to some place of more dignity and rest, which seemeth now to be a hope altogether casual, if not wholly intercepted. Wherefore, (not to hold your majesty long,) my suit (than the which I think I cannot well go lower) is, that I may obtain your royal promise to succeed (if I live) into the attorney's place, whensoever it shall be void, it being but the natural, and immediate step and rise, which the place I now hold hath ever (in sort) made claim to, and almost never failed of. In this suit I make no friends to your majesty, but rely upon no other motive than your grace, nor any other assurance but your word, whereof I had good experience when I came to the solicitor's place, that they were like to the two great lights, which in their motions are never retrograde. So, with my best prayer for your majesty's happiness, I rest



It is observed, upon a place in the Canticles by some, "Ego sum Flos Campi, et Lilium Convallium;" that it is not said, "Ego sum flos horti, et lilium montium:" because the majesty of that person is not enclosed for a few, nor appropriate to the great. And yet, notwithstanding, this royal



FRANCE, UPON SENDING HIM HIS WRITING, "IN virtue of access, which nature and judgment hath placed in your majesty's mind, as the portal of all the rest, could not of itself (my imperfections considered) have animated me to have made oblation of myself immediately to your majesty, had it not been joined to a habit of like liberty which I enjoyed with my late dear sovereign mistress, a princess happy in all things, but most happy in such a successor. nearly, I was not a little encouraged, not only And yet, farther, and more upon a supposal, that unto your majesty's sacred ears (open to the air of all virtues) there might have come some small breath of the good memory of my father, so long a principal counsellor in your kingdom, but also, by the particular knowledge of the infinite devotion, and incessant endeavours, beyond the strength of his body, and the nature of the times, which appeared in my


Being asked the question by this bearer, an old servant of my brother Anthony Bacon, whether I would command him any service into France, and being at better leisure than I would, in regard of sickness, I began to remember, that neither your business nor mine (though great and continual) can be, upon an exact account, any just occasion why so much good-will as hath passed between us should be so much discontinued as it hath been. And, therefore, because one must begin, I thought to provoke your remembrance of me, by my letter. And thinking how to fit it with somewhat besides salutations, it came to my mind, that this last summer, by occasion of a factious


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