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exhibiting clear individual effects according to anxious to be shown some method that will neiparticular laws:* yet, in each branch of learning, ther fail in effect, nor deceive him in the trial of that very law, its investigation, discovery, and it. Secondly, he will be anxious that the predevelopment, are the foundation both of theory scribed method should not restrict him and tie and practice.t This, law, therefore, and its him down to peculiar means, and certain partiparallel in each science, is what we understand cular methods of acting. For he will, perhaps, by the term form, adopting that word because it be at a loss, and without the power or opportunity has grown into common use, and is of familiar of collecting and procuring such means. Now,

if there be other means and methods (besides 3. He who has learned the cause of a particular those prescribed) of creating such a nature, they nature, (such as whiteness or heat,) in particular will perhaps bé of such a kind as are in his subjects only, has acquired but an imperfect power; yet, by the confined limits of the precept knowledge: as he who can induce a certain effect he will be deprived of reaping any advantage from upon particular substances only, among those them. Thirdly, he will be anxious to be shown which are susceptible of it, has acquired but an something not so difficult as the required effect imperfect power. But he who has only learned itself, but approaching more nearly to practice. the efficient and material cause, (which causes We will lay this down, therefore, as the are variable, and mere vehicles conveying form to genuine and perfect rule of practice; “ That it particular substances,) may perhaps arrive at should be certain, free, and preparatory, or having some new discoveries in matters of a similar na- relation to practice.” And this is the same thing ture, and prepared for the purpose, but does not as the discovery of a true form. For the form of stir the limits of things, which are much more any nature is such, that when it is assigned, the deeply rooted : whilst he who is acquainted with particular nature infallibly follows. It is, thereforms, comprehends the unity of nature in sub-fore, always present when that nature is present, stances apparently most distinct from each other. and universally attests such presence, and is He can disclose and bring forward, therefore, inherent in the whole of it. The same form is (though it has never yet been done,) things which of such a character, that if it be removed, the neither the vicissitudes of nature, nor the industry particular nature infallibly vanishes. It is, there

. of experiment, nor chance itself, would ever have fore, absent whenever that nature is absent

, and brought about, and which would forever have perpetually testifies such absence, and exists in escaped man's thoughts. From the discovery of no other nature. Lastly, the true form is such, forms, therefore, results genuine theory and free that it deduces the particular nature from some practice.

source of essence existing in many subjects, and 4. Although there is a most intimate connec- more known (as they term it) to nature, than the tion and almost an identity between the ways of form itself.* Such, then, is our determination human power and human knowledge; yet, on and rule with regard to a genuine and perfect account of the pernicious and inveterate habit of theoretical axiom; "that a nature be found condwelling upon abstractions, it is by far the safest vertible with a given nature, and yet such as to method to commence and build up the sciences limit the more known nature, in the manner of a from those foundations which bear a relation to real genus.” But these two rules, the practical the practical division, and to let them mark out and theoretical, are in fact the same, and that and limit the theoretical. We must consider, which is most useful in practice is most correct therefore, what precepts, or what direction or in theory. guide, a person would most desire, in order to 5. But the rule or axiom for the transformation generate and superinduce any nature upon a given of bodies is of two kinds. The first regards the body: and this not in abstruse, but in the plainest body as an aggregate or combination of simple language.

natures. Thus, in gold are united the following For instance, if a person should wish to super- circumstances; it is yellow, heavy, of a certain induce the yellow colour of gold upon silver, or weight, malleable and ductile to a certain extent; an additional weight, (observing always the laws it is not volatile, loses part of its substance by of matter,) or transparency on an opaque stone, fire, melts in a peculiar manner, is separated and or tenacity in glass, or vegetation on a substance dissolved by particular methods, and so of the which is not vegetable, we must (I say) consider other natures observable in gold. An axiom, what species of precept or guide this person therefore, of this kind deduces the subject from would prefer. And, firstly, lie will doubtless be the forms of simple natures. For he who has

acquired the forms and methods of superinducing Plato's ideas or forms, are the abstractions or generalizalions of distinct species, which have no real existence, indi. Thus, to adopt Bacon's own illustration, motion is a pro. viduals only trusting.

perty common to many subjects, from which must be deduced + Observe throughout, Bacon's term form means no more the form of heat, by defining a particular genus of motion than law. See, further, third paragraph of Aphorism 17 of convertible with heat. See the First Vintage in Aphorism

20, below.

this book.

yellowness, weight, ductility, stability, deliques- observed in nature, to other subjects immediately cence, solution, and the like, and their degrees connected with it, or not very remote from such and modes, will consider and contrive how to immediate connexion. But the higher and radiunite them in any body, so as to* transform it cal operations upon nature, depend entirely on the into gold. And this method of operating belongs primary axioms. Besides, even where man has not to primary action. For it is the same thing to the means of acting, but only of acquiring knowproduce one or many simple natures, except that ledge, as in astronomy, (for man cannot act upon, man is more confined and restricted in his opera- change, or transform the heavenly bodies,) the tions, if many be required, on account of the diffi- investigation of facts or truth, as well as the culty of uniting many natures together. It must, knowledge of causes and coincidences, must be however, be observed, that this method of operat- referred to those primary and universal axioms ing (which considers natures as simple, though in that regard simple natures; such as the nature of a concrete body) sets out from what is constant, spontaneous rotation, attraction, or the magnetic eternal, and universal in nature, and opens such force, and many others which are more common broad paths to human power, as the thoughts of than the heavenly bodies themselves. For, let man can in the present state of things scarcely no one hope to determine the question, whether comprehend or figure to itself. The second kind the earth or heaven revolve in the diurnal motion, of axiom (which depends on the discovery of the unless he have first comprehended the nature of latent process) does not proceed by simple natures, spontaneous rotation. but by concrete bodies, as they are found in na- 6. But the latent process, of which we speak, ture, and in its usual course. For instance; sup- is far from being obvious to men's minds, beset pose the inquiry to be, from what beginnings, in as they now are. For, we mean not the meawhat manner, and by what process gold or any sures, symptoms, or degrees of any process metal or stone is generated from the original which can be exhibited in the bodies themmenstruum, or its elements, up to the perfect selves, but simply a continued process, which, mineral: or, in like manner, by what process for the most part, escapes the observation of

, the juices in the earth, or from seeds, up to the perfect "For instance; in all generations and transforplant, with the whole successive motion, and mations of bodies, we must inquire, what is in varied and uninterrupted efforts of nature; and the act of being lost and escaping, what remains, the same inquiry be made as to a regularly what is being added, what is being diluted, what deduced system of the generation of animals is being contracted, what is being united, what is from coition to birth, and so on of other bodies. being separated, what is continuous, what is

Nor is this species of inquiry confined to the broken off, what is urging forward, what impedes, mere generation of bodies, but it is applicable to what predominates, what is subservient, and other changes and labours of nature. For in- many other circumstances. stance; where an inquiry is made into the whole Nor are these inquiries again to be made in the series, and continued operation of the nutritive mere generation and transformation of bodies process, from the first reception of the food, to its only, but in all other alterations and fluctuations, complete assimilation to the recipient: or into the we must in like manner inquire; what precedes, voluntary motion of animals, from the first im- what succeeds, what is quick, what is slow, pression of the imagination, and the continuous what produces and what governs motion, and the effects of the spirits, up to the bending and mo. like. All which matters are unknown and unattion of the joints; or into the free motion of the tempted by the sciences, in their present heavy tongue and lips, and other accessories which give and inactive state. For, since every natural act is utterance to articulate sounds. For all these in- brought about by the smallest efforts, or at least vestigations relate to concrete or associated na- such as are too small to strike our senses, let no tures, artificially brought together, and take into one hope that he will be able to direct or change consideration certain particular and special habits nature, unless he have properly comprehended of nature, and not those fundamental and general and observed these efforts. laws which constitute forms. It must, however, 7. In like manner, the investigation and discobe plainly owned, that this method appears more very of the latent confirmation in bodies is no less prompt and easy, and of greater promise than the new, than the discovery of the latent process and primary one.

form. For, we as yet are doubtless only admitted In like manner the operative branch, which an- to the antechamber of nature, and do not prepare swers to this contemplative branch, extends and an entrance into her presence-room. But nobody advances its operation from that which is usually can endue a given body with a new nature, or

transform it successfully and appropriately into a * By the recent discoveries in clectric magnetism, copper new body, without possessing a complete know. wires, or, indeed, wires of any metal may be transformed ledge of the body so to be changed or transformed. into magnets ; the magnetic law or form huving been to that

For he will run into vain, or, at least, into difficult

extent discovered.

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:ind perverse methods, ill adapted to the nature of organic body are subject to the same examination. the body upon which he operates. A clear path, In these, however, as in our former inquiries, and therefore, towards this object, also must be thrown therefore in the whole investigation of latent conopen, and well supported.

formation, the only genuine and clear light which Labour is well and usefully bestowed upon completely dispels all darkness and subtile difi. the anatomy of organized bodies, such as those culties, is admitted by means of the primary of men and animals, which appears to be a sub- axioms. tile matter, and a useful examination of nature. 8. This method will not bring us to atoms,* This species of anatomy, however, is that of first which takes for granted the vacuum, and the im. sight, open to the senses, and takes place only in mutability of matter, (neither of which hypotheses organized bodies. It is obvious, and of ready is correct;) but to the real particles, such as we access, when compared with the real anatomy of discover them to be. Nor is there any ground latent conformation in bodies which are considered for alarm at this refinement, as if it were inexplisimilar, particularly in specific objects and their cable, for, on the contrary, the more inquiry is parts: as those of iron, stone, and the similar directed to simple natures, the more will every parts of plants and animals, as the root, the leaf, thing be placed in a plain and perspicuous light; the flower, the flesh, the blood, and bones, &c. since we transfer our attention from the compliYet human industry has not completely neglected cated to the simple, from the incommensurable to this species of anatomy: for we have an instance the commensurable, from surds to rational quantiof it in the separation of similar bodies by dis- ties, from the indefinite and vague to the definite tillation, and other solutions, which shows the and certain: as when we arrive at the elements dissimilarity of the compound, by the union of of letters, and the simple tones of concords. The the homogeneous parts. These methods are use investigation of nature is best conducted when ful, and of importance to our inquiry, although mathematics are applied to physics. Again, let attended generally with fallacy : for many na- none be alarmed at vast numbers and fractions; tures are assigned and attributed to the separate for, in calculation, it is as easy to set down or to bodies, as if they had previously existed in the reflect upon a thousand as a unit, or the thou. compound, which, in reality, are recently bestow- sandth part of an integer as an integer itself. ed and superinduced by fire and heat, and the 9. From the two kinds of axioms above speciother modes of separation. Besides, it is, after fied arise the two divisions of philosophy and the all, but a small part of the labour of discovering sciences, and we will use the commonly adopted the real conformation in the compound, which is terms, which approach the nearest to our meaning, so subtile and nice, that it is rather confused and in our own sense. Let the investigation of forms, lost by the operation of the fire, than discovered which (in reasoning at least, and after their own and brought to light.

laws) are eternal and immutable, constitute mellA separation and solution of bodies, therefore, physics, and let the investigation of the efficient is to be effected, not by fire indeed, but rather by cause of matter, latent process, and latent confor. reasoning and true induction, with the assistance mation (which all relate merely to the ordinary of experiment, and by a comparison with other course of nature, and not to her fundamental and bodies, and a reduction to those simple natures eternal laws) constitute physics. Parallel to these and their forms, which meet and are combined in let there be two practical divisions; to physics the compound; and we must assuredly pass from that of mechanics, and to metaphysics that of magic, Vulcan to Minerva, if we wish to bring to light in the purest sense of the term, as applied to its the real texture and conformation of bodies, upon ample means and its command over nature. which every occult and (as it is sometimes called) 10. The object of our philosophy being thus specific property and virtue of things depends, laid down, we proceed to precepts, in the most and whence, also, every rule of powerful change clear and regular order. The signs for the inter and transformation is deduced.

pretation of nature comprehend two divisions : the For instance, we must examine what spirit is first regards the eliciting or creating of axioms in every body, what tangible essence; whether that from experiment, the second the deducing or de. spirit is copious and exuberant, or meagre and riving of new experiments from axioms. The scarce, fine or coarse, aeriform or igniform, active first admits of three subdivisions into ministraor sluggish, weak or robust, progressive or retro- tions. 1. To the senses. 2. To the memory. grade, abrupt or continuous, agreeing with external and surrounding objects, or differing from

The theory of the Epicureans and others. The atoms are them, &c. In like manner must we treat tangi- supposed to be indivisible

, unalterable particles

, endued with hle essence, (which admits of as many distinctions all the properties of the given body, and forming that body by as the spirit,) and its hairs, fibres, and varied takes a vacuum for granted, or introduces a tertium quid into

their union. They must be separated of course, which either texture. Again, the situation of the spirit in the the composition of the body'. corporeal mass, its pores, passages, veins, and + Compare the three following aphorisms with the three

last chapters of the third book of the De Augmentis Scientisceils, and the rudiments or first essays of the

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3. To the mind or reason. For we must first pre-cloth, &c., so that rudders, and axles of wheels,
pare as a foundation for the whole a complete and sometimes catch fire, and the West Indians obtain
accurate natural and experimental history. We fire by attrition.
must not imagine or invent, but discover the acts 17. Green and moist vegetable matter confined
and properties of nature.

and rubbed together; as roses, peas in baskets ;
But natural and experimental history is so so hay, if it be damp when stacked, often catches
varied and diffuse, that it confounds and distracts fire.
the understanding unless it be fixed and exhibited 18. Quicklime sprinkled with water.
in due order. We must, therefore, form tables 19. Iron, when first dissolved by acids in a
and co-ordinations of instances, upon such a plan, glass, and without any application to fire; the
and in such order, that the understanding may be same of tin, but not so intensely.
enabled to act upon them.

20. Animals, particularly internally; although Even when this is done, the understanding, left the heat is not perceivable by the touch in insects, to itself and its own operation, is incompetent and on account of their small size. unfit to construct its axioms without direction 21. Horse dung, and the like excrement from and support. Our third ministration, therefore, other animals, when fresh. must be true and legitimate induction, the very 22. Strong oil of sulphur and of vitriol exhibit key of interpretation. We must begin, however, the operation of heat in burning linen. at the end, and go back again to the others. 23. As does the oil of marjoram, and like sub

11. The investigation of Forms proceeds thus : stances, in burning the bony substance of the A nature being given, we must first present to the teeth. understanding all the known instances which 24. Strong and well rectified spirits of wine agree in the same nature, although the subject-mat- exhibit the same effects; so that white of eggs ter be considerably diversified. And this collec- when thrown into it, grows hard and white, almost tion must be made as a mere history, and without in the same manner as when boiled, and bread any premature reflection, or too great degree of becomes burnt and brown as if toasted. refinement. For instance: take the investigation

25. Aromatic substances and warm plants, as of the form of heat.

the dracunculus [arum,] old nasturtium, &c.;

which, though they be not warm to the touch, Instances agreeing in the Form of Heat. (whether whole or pulverized,) yet are discovered 1. The rays of the sun, particularly in summer, by the tongue and palate to be warm and almost

burning when slightly masticated. 2. The same reflected and condensed, as be- 26. Strong vinegar and all acids, or any part of tween mountains, or along walls, and particularly the body not clothed with the epidermis, as the in burning mirrors.

eye, tongue, or any wounded part, or where the 3. Ignited meteors.

skin is removed, excite a pain differing but little 4. Burning lightning.

from that produced by heat. 5. Eruptions of flames from the cavities of 27. Even a severe and intense cold produces a mountains, &c.

sensation of burning.* 6. Flame of every kind,

“Nam Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurit." 7. Ignited solids.

28. Other instances. 8. Natural warm baths.

We are wont to call this a table of existence 9. Warm or heated liquids.

and presence. 10. Warm vapours and smoke: and the air

12. We must next present to the understanding itself, which admits a most powerful and violent instances which do not admit of the given nature; heat if confined, as in reverberating furnaces. for form (as we have observed) ought no less to

11. Damp hot weather, arising from the consti- be absent where the given nature is absent, than tution of the air, without any reference to the time to be present where it is present. If, however,

we were to examine every instance, our labour 12. Confined and subterraneous air in some would be infinite. caverns, particularly in winter.

Negatives, therefore, must be classed under 13. All shaggy substances, as wool, the skins the affirmatives, and the want of the given nature of animals, and the plumage of birds, contain must be inquired into more particularly in objects some heat,

which have a very close connexion with saose 14. All bodies, both solid and liquid, dense and others in which it is present and manifest. And rare, (as the air itself,) placed near fire for any this we are wont to term a table of deviation or time.

of absence in proximity. 15. Sparks arising from the violent percussion

*"Ne tenues pluviæ, rapidive potentia solis of flint and steel.

Acrior, aut Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurat." 16 All bodies rubbed violently, as stone, wood,

Virg. Georg. I. v. 92, 93

and at noon.

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Proximate Instances wanting the Nature of Heat. | of the sun appear to have but little power even First negative subjunctive instance to the first affirmative on the plain, and when reflected, unless they are instances.

multiplied and condensed, which takes place The rays of the moon, stars, and comets, are when the sun tends more to the perpendicular; not found to be warm to the touch, nay, the for then the incidence of the rays occurs at more severest cold has been observed to take place at acute angles, so that the reflected rays are nearer the full of the moon. Yet the larger fixed stars are to each other, whilst, on the contrary, when the supposed to increase and render more intense the sun is in a very oblique position, the angles of heat of the sun, as he approaches them; when incidence are very obtuse and the reflected rays the sun is in the sign of the lion, for instance, and at a greater distance. In the mean time it must in the dog-days.

be observed, that there may be many operations

of the solar rays, relating too to the nature of Second negative to the second affirmative.

heat, which are not proportioned to our touch, so The rays of the sun in what is called the mid- that, with regard to us, they do not tend 10 prodle region of the air give no heat, to account for duce warmth, but, with regard to some other which the commonly assigned reason is satisfacto-bodies, have their due effect in producing it. ry; namely, that that region is neither sufficiently near to the body of the sun, whence the rays ema

Fourth negative to the second affirmative. nate, nor to the earth, whence they are reflected. Let the following experiment be made. Take And the fact is manifested by snow being perpe- a lens the reverse of a burning glass, and place tual on the tops of mountains, unless extremely it between the hand and the solar rays, and oblofty. But it is observed on the other hand by serve whether it diminish the heat of the sun, as some, that at the Peak of Teneriffe, and also a burning glass increases it. For it is clear, with among the Andes of Peru, the tops of the moun- regard to the visual rays, that, in proportion as tains are free from snow, which only lies in the the lens is made of unequal thickness in the lower part, as you ascend. Besides, the air on middle and at its sides, the images appear either the summit of these mountains is found to be by more diffused or contracted. It should be seen, no means cold, but only thin and sharp; so much therefore, if the same be true with regard to heat. so, that in the Andes, it pricks and hurts the eyes

Finth negative to the second affirmative, from its extreme sharpness, and even excites the orifice of the stomach and produces vomiting. Let the experiment be well tried, whether the The ancients also observed, that the rarity of the lunar rays can be received and collected by the air on the summit of Olympus, was such, that strongest and best burning-glasses, so as to prothose who ascended it, were obliged to carry duce even the least degree of heat. But if that sponges moistened with vinegar and water, and degree be, perhaps, so subtile and weak, as not to apply them now and then to their nostrils, as to be perceived or ascertained by the touch, we the air was not dense enough for their respiration; must have recourse to those glasses which indion the summit of which mountain it is also related, cate the warm or cold state of the atmosphere, there reigned so great a serenity and calm, free and let the lunar rays fall through the burning from rain, snow, or wind, that the letters traced glass on the top of this thermometer, and then upon the ashes of the sacrifices on the altar of notice if the water be depressed by the heat.* Jupiter, by the fingers of those who had offered them, would remain undisturbed till the next

Sixth negative to the second afhrmative. year. Those even, who, at this day, go to the Let the burning-glass be tried on warm objects top of the Peak of Teneriffe, walk by night and which emit no luminous rays, as heated, but not not in the daytime, and are advised and pressed ignited iron or stone, or hot water, or the like; by their guides, as soon as the sun rises, to make and observe whether the heat become increased haste in their descent, on account of the danger, and condensed, as happens with the solar rays. (apparently arising from the rarity of the atmos

Seventh negative to the second affirmative.
phere,) lest their breathing should be relaxed and
suffocated.

Let it be tried on common flame.
Third negative to the second affirmative.

Eighth negative to the third affirmative.
The reflection of the solar rays in the polar

The effect of comets, (if we can reckon them regions is found to be weak and inefficient in amongst meteors,) in augmenting the heat of the producing heat; so that the Dutch, who winter- season, is not found to be constant or clear, aled in Nova Zembla, and expected that their ves- though droughts have generally been observed to sels would be freed about the beginning of July follow them. However, luminous lines, and pil from the obstruction of the mass of ice which had blocked it up, were disappointed and obliged * For the construction of Bacon's thermometer gee No. S to embark in their boat. Hence the direct rays | rometer, but is inaccurate in both capacities.

in the table of the degrees of heat. It serves also as a bao

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