« PreviousContinue »
A CATALOGUE OF PARTICULAR HISTORIES.
24. A History of Water in its Substance, not its tion of the Blood ; the Assimilation of NonConfiguration.
rishment to the Frame, the Conversion of the 25. A History of the Earth, and its Varieties in Blood and the Flower of it into Spirits, &c. its Substance, not its Configuration.
48. A History of Natural and Involuntary Mo
tions; as the motions of the heart, the motions The following are Histories of Species.
of the pulse, sneezing, the motions of the 26. A History of the perfect Metals, of Gold, Sil
lungs, priapism. ver; of Mines, Veins, and Marcasites of the 49. A History of Motion of a mixed nature, same, also the chymical Actions of Minerals between natural and voluntary; respiration, in their natural state.
coughing, making water, stool, &c. 27. The History of Quicksilver.
50. A History of Voluntary Motions; as of the 28. A History of Fossils; as vitriol, sulphur, &c. organs of articulation or speaking, the motions 29. A History of Gems; as the diamond, ruby, of the eyes, tongue, jaws, hands, fingers, of &c.
swallowing, &c. 30. A History of Stones; as marble, gold-touch- 51. A History of Sleep and Dreams. stone, fint, &c.
52. A History of different Habits of Body, of fat 31. A History of the Magnet.
and lean, of complexions, (as they are called,) 32. A History of Miscellaneous Substances, &c.
which are neither wholly fossil nor vegeta- 53. A History of the Generation of Man. ble; as salts, amber, ambergris, &c.
54. A History of Conception, Quickening, Ges. 33. A Chymical History, regarding Metals and tation in Utero, Birth, &c. Minerals.
55. A History of the Nourishment of Man, of 34. A History of Plants, Trees, Fruits, Grapes, all Esculents and Potables, and of all Diei,
and their parts, the Roots, Stalks, Wood, and its Varieties, according to nations, or minor Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Tears, or Exu differences. dations, &c.
56. A History of the Augmentation and Growth 35. A Chymical History, regarding Vegetables. of the Body, in the whole, or in its parts. 36. A History of Fishes, and their Parts and 57. A History of the Course of life: of Infancy, Generation.
Boy hood, Manhood, Old Age; of Longevity. 37. A History of Volant Creatures, their Parts Shortness of Life, and the like, according to and Generation.
nations, or minor differences. 38. A History of Quadrupeds, their Parts and 58. A History of Life and Death. Generation.
59. A Medical History of Diseases ; their symp39. A History of Reptiles, Worms, Flies, and toms and signs.
other Insects, and of their Parts and Genera- 60. A Medical History of the Cure, Remedies tion.
of, and Liberations from Diseases. 40. A Chymical History of those Substances 61. A Medical History of those Things which which are extracted from Animals.
preserve the Body and Healtb.
62. A Medical History of those Things which be The following are Histories of Man.
long to the Form and Beauty of the Body, &c. 41. A Histury of the Figure and external Mem- 63. A Medical History of those Things which
bers of Man, his Stature, the Knitting of his alter the Body, and belong to Alterative Regi Frame, his Countenance and Features; and the varieties of these, according to nation and cli- 64. A History of Drugs. mate, or any minute diversities.
65. A Chirurgical History. 42. A History of Physiognomy, derived from the 66. A Chymical History, with Re erence 10 New former.
dicines. 43. A History Anatomical, or of the Internal 67. A History of Light and Visible Objects, or
Members of Man, and their Variety, so far as optical. it is found in the Natural Cohesion and Struc- 68. A History of Painting, Sculpture, Casts, &e. ture of the Parts, and not merely with refer- 69. A History of Hearing and Sounds.
ence to Diseases and preternatural Accidents. 70. A History of Music. 44. A History of the Homogeneous Parts of 71. A History of Smell and Odours.
Man; as of flesh, bones, membranes, &c. 72. A History of Taste and Savours 45. A History of the Humours in Man; as blood, 73. A History of Touch, and its Objects. bile, semen, &c.
74. A History of Venery, as a Species of Touch. 46. A History of Excrements, Spittle, Urine, 75. A History of Bodily Pains, as a Species of
Sweats, Fæces, the Hair of the Head, and Touch.
76. A History of Pleasure and Pain in general. 47. The History of the Faculties of Attraction, 77. A History of the Passions; as anger, lote
Digestion, Retention, Expulsion; the Forma shame, &e.
78. A History of the Intellectual Faculties; the Co-|111. A History of Wax.
gitative Faculty, Fancy, Reason, Memory, &c. 112. A History of Osiers. 79. A History of Natural Divination.
113. A History of Carpeting, and Manufactures 80. A History of Discernments; or, Discrimina of Straw, Rushes, and the like. tions of Occult Qualities.
114. A History of Washing, Brushing, &c. 81. A History of Cookery, and the Arts subser- 115. A History of Farming, Pasturage, the Ma
vient to it; of the Shambles, of Aviaries, &c. naging of Wood, &c. 82. A History of Baking, and the Preparation of 116. A History of Gardens.
Bread, and the subservient Arts, as grinding 117. A History of Fishing, meal.
118. A History of Hunting and Fowling. 83. A History of Wines.
119. A History of the Art of War, and the Arts 84. A History of the Cellar, and different kinds subservient to it, as the manufacture of arms, of Drinks.
bows, arrows, muskets, projectile engines, ba85. A History of Sweetmeats and Confections. listæ, machines, &c. 86. A History of Honey.
120. A History of the Nautical Art, and the Trades 87. A History of Sugar.
and Arts subservient to it. 88. A History of Milkmeats.
121. A History of Gymnastics, and of all kinds 89. A History of the Bath of Unguents.
of Exercise used by Man. 90. A Miscellaneous History of the Care of the | 122. A History of Riding. Person; Shaving, Perfuming, &c.
123. A History of Games of all kinds. 91. A History of working in Gold, and the Arts 124. A History of Conjurors and Sleight of Hand subservient to it.
Men. 92. A History of the Preparation of Wool, and 125. A Miscellaneous History of different Artifithe Arts subservient to it.
cial Substances, as smalt, porcelain, various 93. A History of Manufactures of Silk and Satin, cements, &c. and the Arts subservient to them.
126. A History of Salts. 94. A History of Manufactures of Linen, Canvass, 127. A Miscellaneous History of different Ma
Cotton, Hair, and other thready Substances, chines and Motions. and of the Arts subservient to them.
128. A Miscellaneous History of Common Expe95. A History of the Preparation of Feathers. riments, which have not yet united into an Art. 96. A History of Weaving, and the Arts subser. vient to it.
Histories also of pure Mathematics ought to be 97. A History of Dyeing.
written, although they be rather Observations 98. A History of Leather and Tanning, and the than Experiments.
Arts subservient to it. 99. A History of Mattrasses and Feather Beds. 129. A History of the Natures and Powers of 100. A History of Working in Iron.
Numbers. 101. A History of the Lapidary Art; or of Stone- 130. A History of the Natures and Powers of cutting.
Figures. 102. A History of Bricks and Tiles. 103. A History of Pottery.
It may not be useless to suggest that, as many 104. A History of Cements and Incrustations. of the experiments fall under two or more heads, 105. A History of working in Wood.
(thus the History of Plants and of the Art of 106. A History of Lead.
Gardening contains many things common to both,) 107. A History of Glass and all Vitreous Sub- it will be more convenient to regulate the inquisi.
stances, and of the Manufacture of Glass. tion by the arts, the arrangement by the bodies. 108. A History of Architecture in general. For we pay no great attention to the mechanical 109. A History of Wagons, Cars, Litters, &c. arts as such, but only to those of them which con. 110. A Typographical History of Books, Writ- tribute to furnish forth philosophy. But these
ings, Seals, Ink, Pens, Paper, Parchment, &c. matters will be best disposed of as the cases arise.
OF THE INST
NATURAL AND EXPEI
TO SERVE AS A FOUNDAT
PHENOMENA OF T
BEING THE THIRD PART OF TI
THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS A
SON AND HEIR TO THE HIGH
I HUMBLY present unto your highness the first-fr little in quantity, like a grain of mustard seed, but y shall ensue. For we have bound ourselves, as by a ness please (whose glory it sets forth, as it were in set out one or more parts of it, according as their Others may peradventure (moved by our example) they shall clearly perceive what is in hand. For ir out, are the keys both of sciences and works. God
THE TITLES OF THE HISTORIES AND
FIRST SIX N THE HISTORY OF WINDS. The History of DensitY AND Rarity, as
LIKEWISE of COITION AND EXPANSION OF
MATTER BY Spaces.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HISTORY,
FOR THE MAKING UP OF PHILOSOPHY:
EXPERIMENTS OF THE UNIVERSE:
WHICH IS THE THIRD PART OF THE INSTAURATIO MAGNA.
Men are to be entreated, advised, and adjured, the star Lyra or Harpe riseth by an edict, and even by their fortunes, to submit their minds and authority is taken for truth, not truth for authority; seek for knowledge in the greater world; and which kind of order and discipline is very conlikewise to cast away so much as the thought of venient for our present use, but banisheth those philosophy, or at least to hope but for slender which are better. For we both suffer for and and small fruits thereof, until a diligent and emulate our first parents' sin; they desired to be approved natural and experimental history be like unto God, and their posterity much more ; acquired and made up. For what would these for we create new worlds, go before nature and shallow brains of men, and these potent trifles command it. We must have all things to be so have? There were among the ancients nume- as may agree with our folly, not to divine wisrous opinions of philosophers, as of Pythagoras, dom, nor as they are found to be in themselves; Philolaos, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Empedocles, neither can I say which we rest most, our wits or Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Democri- the things themselves: but certainly we set the tus, Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Zeno, and stamps and seals of our own images upon God's others. All these made up arguments of worlds, creatures and works, and never carefully look as of fables, according to their own fancies, and upon and acknowledge the Creator's stamps. recited and published those fables; whereof some Therefore, we do not, without cause, again strive indeed were more handsome and probable, and for the domination over the creatures. For, some again most harsh. But in our ages, by whereas, even after the fall of man, he had some means of colleges and schools' disciplines, wits kind of domination left him over reluctant creaare somewhat more restrained; yet have they not tures, that he might tame and subdue them by quite ceased : Patricius, Telesius, Brunus, Seve- true and solid arts; we have, for the most part, rine, the Dane, Gilbertus, an Englishman, and lost that, also, through our own insolence, beCampanella, did set foot upon the stage, and cause we will be like unto God, and follow the acted new fables, neither much applauded, nor of dictates of our own reason. Wherefore, if there any elegant argument or subject. But do we be any humility towards the Creator, any revewonder at these things, as though such sects and rence and magnifying of his works, any charity in opinions might not in an infinite number arise in men, or care to release them out of their necessiall ages! For neither is there, nor ever will be ties and miseries, if there be any love of truth in any end or limit for these things. One snatches natural things, hatred of darkness, and a desire of at one thing, another is pleased with another; purifying the understanding, men are to be again there is no dry nor clear sight of any thing; every and again desired that, casting off, or, at least, one plays the philosopher out of the small trea- laying aside for a while the flying and prepossures of his own fancy, as it were out of Plato's terous philosophies, which have set the theses cave; the more sublime wits more acutely, before the hypotheses, or suppositions before solid and with better success; the duller with less grounds, have captivated experience, and trisuccess, but equal obstinacy: and not long since, umphed over the works of God, they would humby the discipline of some learned (and, as things bly, and with a certain reverence, draw near and go now, excellent) men, sciences are bounded turn over the great volume of the creatures, stop within the limits of some certain authors which and meditate upon it; and, being cleansed, and they have set down, imposing them upon old free from opinions, handle them choicely and en. men, and instilling them into young. So that tirely. This is the speech and language that now (as Tully cavilled upon Cæsar's consulship) went ont into all the ends of the world, and suf
fered not in the confusion of Babel. Let men ments of arts, he is gravelled, or stichs in the learn this, and becoming children again, and in- mire; it is not his intention, he bath no time, har fants, not scorn to take A B C thereof in hand, will not be at the charge; yet we must not desire and in finding and searching out the interpreta- to have men cast off old things before they have tion of it, let them spare no labour, but let them gotten new. But after a copious and faithful hispersist and go on, and even die in the quest of it. tory of nature and arts is gathered and digested, Seeing, therefore, that in our Instauration we have and, as it were, set and laid open before men's placed the Natural History (such as it is, in order eyes, there is no small hope that such great wits to our ends) in the third part of the work, we as we have before spoken of, (such as have been have thought fit to prevent this thing, and fall in ancient philosophers, and are at this day freupon it immediately. For, although in our Or- quent enough,) having been heretofore of such ganon there are many things of especial conse- efficacy, that they could, out of cork, or a little quence to be finished, yet we think it fitting rather shell, (namely, by thin and frivolous experience,) to promote or set forward the general work of in- build certain little boats for philosophy, gallant stauration in many things, than to perfect it in a enough for art and structure, how much more galfew; always desiring, with extreme fervency, lant and solid structures will they make when (such as we are confident God puts in the minds they have found a whole wood, and stuff enough; of men,) to have that which was never yet at- and that, though they had rather go on in the old tempted, not to be now attempted in vain. Like- way, than make use of our Organon's way, which wise, there came this thought into my mind, in our opinion) is either the only, or the best namely, that there are questionless in Europe way. So that the case stands thus: our Orgamany capable, free, sublimed, subtile, solid, con- non (though perfect) could not profit much withe stant wits; and what if any one endued with out the Natural History; but our Natural His. such a wit do betake himself to the use and man- tory, without the Organon, might much advance ner of our Organon, and approve of it? yet hath instauration, or renewing of sciences. Wherehe nothing to do, nor knows not how to address fore, we have thought it best and most advisedly himself to, or fit himself for philosophy. If it to fall upon this before any thing else. God, the were a thing which might be effected by reading maker, preserver, and renewer of the universe, of philosophy books, disputation, or meditation, guide and protect this work, both in its ascent to that man (whosoever it be) might sufficiently his own glory, and in its descent to the good of and abundantly perform it; but if we remit him, man, through his good will towards man, by his as indeed we do, to natural history, and experi-I only begotton Son, God with us!
THE RULE OF THIS PRESENT HISTORY.
Though we have set down, towards the end of which either for use was most of weight, ar for that part of our Organon which is come forth, abundance of experiments most convenient
, or precepts concerning the Natural and Experiment for the obscurity of the thing most difficult 201 al History, yet we have thought good to set noble, or, by reason of the discrepancy of tiles down more exactly and briefly the forn and rule among themselves, most open to examples. La of this history which we now take in hand. To each title, after a kind of an entrance of prefice, the titles comprehended in the catalogue, which we presently propound certain particular topics belong to the concretes, we have added the titles or articles of inquisition, as well to give light to of the abstract natures; of which, as of a re- the present inquisition, as to encourage a future. served history, we made mention in the same For we are master of questions, but not of things: place. These are the various figurations of the yet we do not, in the history, precisely obserne matter, or forms of the first class; simple mo- the order of questions, lest that which is for an tions, sums of motions, measures of motions, aid and assistance should prove a hindrance. and some other things: of these we have made The histories and experiments always hold a new alphabet, and placed it at the end of this the first place; and if they set forth ans enume volume. We have taken titles, (being no way ration and series of particular things, they are able to take them all,) not according to order, but made up in tables, or if otherwise, they are iaken by choice; those, namely, the inquisition of up severally.