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Seeing that histories and experiments do of- | ones, and, as it were, inchoated axioms which fentimes fail us, especially those which give offer themselves into us as we inquire, not as we light, and instances of the cross, by which the decisorily pronounce, for they are profitable, understanding may be informed of the true though not altogether true. causes of things, we give precepts of new expe Never forgetting the profit of mankind, though riments, as far as we can see them fitting in our the light be more worthy than those things which mind, for that as is to be inquired; and these be shown by it,) we offer to man's attention and precepts are designed like histories. For what practice certain essays of practice, knowing that other means is left to us, who are the first that men's stupidity is such, and so unhappy, that coine into this way? We unfold and make plain sometimes they see not and pass over things the manner of some experiments that are more which lie just in their way. quaint and subtile, that there may be no error, We set down works and things impossible, or and that we may stir up others to find out better at least which are not yet found out, as they fall and more exact ways. We interweave monitions under each title; and withal those which are al. and cautions of the fallacies of things, and of such ready found out, and are in men's power; and errors and scruples as may be found in the inquiry, we add to those impossible, and not yet found out that all fancies, and, as it were, apparitions, may things, such as are next to them, and have most be frighted away, as by an exorcism or spell. affinity with them, that we may stir up and withal
We join thereunto our observations upon his- encourage human industry. tory and experiments, that the interpretation of It appears by the aforesaid things that this prethe nature may be the readier.
sent history doth not only supply the place of the We interpose some comments, or, as it were, third part of the instauration, but also is not a derudiments of the interpretations of causes, spar- spicable preparation to the fourth, by reason of the ingly, and rather supposing what may be, than titles out of the alphabet and topics, and to the positively defining what is.
sixth, by reason of the larger observations, comWe prescribe and set down rules, but movable mentations, and rules.
ENTRY INTO THE HISTORY OF WINDS.
The winds gave wings to men; for by their great and vehement motions, and like hirelings, assistance men are carried up through the air and serve both to sail and grind, and would be useful fly; not through the air, indeed, but upon the sea; for many other things, if human care were not and a wide door is laid open to commerce, and the wanting. Their natures are reckoned amongst world is made pervious. They are the besoms secret and hidden things. Neither is that to be which sweep and make clean the earth, which is wondered at, seeing the nature and power of the the seat and habitation of mankind, and they air is unknown, whom the winds do serve and cleanse both it and the air; but they make the sea flatter, as Eolus doth Juno in the Poets. They hurtful, which otherwise is harmless, neither are are not primary creatures, nor any of the six days' they some other ways also free from doing hurt. works, no more than the rest of the meteors actuThey are, without help of man, able to stir up ally, but afterborn, by the order of the creation.
2 o 2
General winds. 2. Whether there be any general winds, which are the very self-motion of the air; and if there beco any such, in order to what motion, and in what do places they blow?
gic Precise or fixed winds.
tog 3. What winds are anniversary or yearly winds,
im returning by turns; and in what countries? Whether there be any wind so precisely fixed, that it
w! returns regularly at certain days and hours, like unto the flowing of the sea ?
ing Attending or peculiar winds.
gir 4. What winds are peculiar and ordinary in na countries, which observe a certain time in the air same countries; which are spring winds, and which are summer winds; which autumnal, which brumal, which equinoctial, which solstitial; which are belonging to the morning, which to tio noon, which to the evening, and which to the of night.
5. What winds are sea winds, and what winds blow from the continent ? and mark and set down are the differences of the sea and land winds carefully, as as well of those which blow at land and sea, as TH of those which blow from land and sea.
Free winds. 6. Whether winds do not blow from all parts are of heaven?
do Winds do not vary much more in the parts of heaven from which they blow, than in their own qualities. Some are vehement, some mild, some constant, some mutable; some hot, some cold, gi some moistening and dissolving; some drying and th astringent; some gather clouds and are rainy,
sition pass to those things which contribute | south wind blew in such a place, whether it be towards the winds, (for we will so express it, known certainly, that at the same time the north because the word efficient signifies more, and the wind blew ten miles off? And, contrariwise, word concomitant, less than we mean,) and to into how narrow and straight bounds the winds those things which seem to raise, or to appease may be reduced, so that winds may pass, as it the winds.
were, through channels, which seems to be done
in some whirlwinds. Things contributing or making for the winds, and raising and 18. Inquire for how long a time, very much, uppeasing them.
ordinary, or little time, winds use to continue, 11. Inquire sparingly concerning astrological and then slack, and, as it were, expire and die. considerations of winds, neither care thou for the Likewise, how the rising and beginning of winds over-curious schemes of the heaven, only do not useth to be; what their languishing or cessation neglect the more manifest observations of winds is, whether suddenly, or by degrees, or how? rising, about the rising of some stars, or abont From the bounds of the winds let your inquithe eclipses of the luminaries, or conjunctions of sition pass over to the succession of winds, either planets; nor much less on those which depend amongst themselves, or in respect of rain and on the courses of the sun and moon.
showers; for when they lead their rings, it were 12. What meteors of several sorts do contri- pretty to know the order of their dancing. bute or make for winds, what the earthquakes, what rain, what the skirmishing of winds, one
Successions of winds. with another ! for these things are linked together, 19. Whether there be any more certain rule or and one draws on the other.
observation concerning the successions of winds 13. What the diversity of vapours and exhala- one to another, or whether it have any relation tions contributes towards the winds ? and which to the motion of the sun, or otherwise; if it have of them do most engender winds ? and how far any, what manner of one it is? the nature of winds doth follow these its mate 20. Inquire concerning the succession and the rials!
alteration, or taking turns of the winds and rain, 11. What those things which are here upon the seeing it is ordinarily and often seen, that rain earth, or are there done do contribute towards the lays the wind, and the wind doth disperse the winds; what the hills and the dissolutions of rain. Bnow upon them; what those masses of ice 21. Whether, after a certain term and period which swiin upon the sea, and are carried to some of years, the succession of winds begin anew; place; what the differences of soil and land ; (so and if it be so, what that period is, and how it be of some large extent;) what ponds, sands, long? woods, and champion ground; what those things From the succession of the winds, let the inwhich we men do here, as burning of heath, and quisition pass to their motions; and the motions the like, doth contribute to the manuring of land, of the winds are comprehended in seven inquithe firing of towns in tine of war, the drying up sitions; whereof three are contained in the former of ponds and lakes; the continual shooting off articles, four remain as yet untouched. For, we of guns, the ringing of many bells together in have inquired of the motion of winds divided great cities, and the like? These things and acts into the several regions of the heaven; also, of of ours are but as small straws, yet something the motion upon three lines, upward, downward, they may do.
and laterally. Likewise, of the accidental mo15. Inquire concerning all manner of raisings, tion of compressions or restraints. There remain or allaying of winds, but be sparing in fabulous the fourth, of progressions or going forward; the and superstitious causes.
fifth, of undulation, or waving; the sixth, of From those things which make for the winds, conflict or skirmish; the seventh, in human let the inquisition proceed to inquire of the instruments and engines. bounds of the winds, of their height, extension, and continuance.
Divers motions of the winds.
22. Seeing progression is always from some The bounds of winds.
certain place or bound, inquire diligently, or as well 16. Inquire carefully of the height or elevation as thou canst, concerning the place of the first of winds, and whether there be any tops of moun- beginning, and, as it were, the spring of any wind. lains to which the winds do not reach ; or whether For winds seem to be like unto fame, for, though clouds may be seen sometimes to stand still, they make a noise and run up and down, yet they and not move, when the winds at the same time hide their heads amongst the clouds; so is their blow strongly npon the earth.
progress; as, for example, if the vehement north17. Inquire diligently of the spaces or rooms ern wind which blew at York such a day, de which the winds take up at once, and within what, blow at London two days after. bounds they blew. As, for example, if thoi 23. Omit not the inquisition of undulation of
winds. We call undulation of winds that motion 30. What they effect concerning purging or by which the wind, in or for a little space of clearing, and infecting of the air, in plagues, sick. time, rises and abates, as the waves of the water; ness, and diseases of beasts. which turns may easily be apprehended by the 31. What they effect concerning the conveying hearing of them in houses; and you must so to us things (which we call) spiritual, as sounds, much the rather mark the differences of undula- rays, and the like. tion, or of furrowing between the water and the From the powers of winds let the inquisition air, because in the air and winds there wants the pass to the prognostics of winds, not only for the motion of gravity or weight, which is a great part use of predictions, but because they lead us on of the cause of the waves rising in the water. to the causes : for prognostics do either show us
24. Inquire carefully concerning the conflict the preparations of things, before they be brought and meeting of winds, which blow at one and into action; or the beginnings before they appear the same time: first, whether at the same time to the sense. there blow several original winds, (for we do not speak of reverberated winds.) which, if it comes
Prognostics of winds. to pass, what windings they engender and bring forth in their motion, and also what condensa
32. Let all manner of good prognostics of winds tions, and alterations they produce in the body be carefully gathered together
, (besides astrologiof the air ?
cal ones, of which we set down formerly how far 25. Whether one wind blow above at the same
they are to be inquired after,) and let them either time as another blows here below with us? For be taken out of meteors, or waters, or instincts of it hath been observed by some, that sometimes beasts, or any other way. the clouds are carried one way, when the weather
Lastly, close up the inquisition, with inquiring cock upon a steeple stands another. Also, that after the imitations of winds, either in natural or the clouds have been driven by a strong gale,
artificial things. when we, here below, have had a great calm. 26. Make an exact particular description of
Imitations of winds. the motion of the winds in driving on ships with their sails.
33. Inquire of the imitations of winds in na27. Let there be a description made of the tural things; such as breaths enclosed within the motion of the winds in the sails of ships, and
bodies of living creatures, and breaths within the the sails of windmills, in the flight of hawks receptacles of distilling vessels. and birds; also, in things that are ordinary, and
Inquire concerning made gales, and artificial for sport, as of displayed colours, flying dragons, winds, as bellows, refrigeratories, or coolers in duels with winds, &c.
parlours, or dining-rooms, &c. From the motions of winds, let the inquisition
Let the heads or articles be such. Neither is pass to the force and power of them.
it unknown to me that it will be impossible to
answer to some of these according to the small or the power of winds.
quantity of experience that we have. But, as in 28. What winds do or can do concerning cur- civil causes, a good lawyer knows what interrorents or tides of waters, in their keeping back, gatories the cause requires to have witnesses eraputting forth, or inlets or overflowings. mined upon; but what the witnesses can answer
29. What they do concerning plants and in- he knows not. The same thing is incident to us sects, bringing in of locusts, blastings and mil- in natural history. Let those who came after us dews.
endeavour for the rest.
To the first article.
The Names of Winds.
because of the assenting voices or opinions of old authors; of which having taken (though with somewhat a doubtful judgment) many things
, We give names to winds rather as they are they will hardly be known, but under soch names numbered in their order and degrees than by their as themselves have used. Let the general divi own antiquity; this we do for memory's and per- sion be this: let cardinal winds be those which Apicuity's sake. But we add the old words also, blow from corners or angles of the world; semi
cardinal, those which blow in the half-wards of within the tropics) we may find places condemned those; and median winds, those which blow be among the ancients. tween these half-wards: likewise of those which It is certain, that to those who sail between blow betwixt these half-wards; let those be called the tropics in a free and open sea, there blows a major medians which blow in a quadrant or fourth constant and settled wind (which the seamen call part of these divisions: the lesser medians are a breeze) from east to vost. This wind is not of all the rest. Now the particular division is that so little force, but that, partly by its own blowwhich follows:
ing, and partly by its guiding the current of the
sea, it hindereth seamen froin coming back again Cardinal. North.
the same way they went to Peru. North and by east.
2. In our seas in Europe, when it is fair dry Med. Maj. North-northeast, or aquilo. North-east, and by north, or meses.
weather, and no particular winds stirring, there
blows a soft kind of gale from the east, which North-east and by east.
followeth the sun. Med. Maj. East-north-east, or cæcias. East and by north.
3. Our common observations do admit that the Cardinal. East, or subsolanus.
higher clouds are for the most part carried from East by south.
east to west; and that it is so likewise when Med. Maj. East-south-east.or vulturnus. Southeast and by east.
here below upon the earth, either there is a great
calm, or a contrary wind; and if they do not Houth-east and by south. Med. Maj. South-south-east, or phænicias.
so always, it is because sometimes particular South and by east.
winds blow aloft which overwhelm this general Cardinal. South.
wind. South and by west.
A Caution. If there be any such general wind, Med. Maj. South-south-west, or libonotus. South-west and by south.
in order to the motion of the heaven, it is not so Semicard. South-west, or libs.
firm nor strong but that it gives way to particular South-west and by west.
winds. But it appears most plainly amongst the Med. Maj. West-south-west, or africus. West and by south.
tropics, by reason of the larger circles which it Cardinal. West, or favonius.
makes. And, likewise, it is so when it blows on West and by north.
high, for the same cause, and by reason of its free Med. Maj. West-north-west, or corus. North-west and by west.
course. Wherefore, if you will take it without Semicard. North-west.
the tropics, and near the earth, (where it blows North-west and by north, or thrascias. Med. Maj. North-north-west, or circius.
most gently and slowly,) make trial of it in an North and by west.
open and free air, in an extreme calm, and in
high places, and in a body which is very movable, There are also other names of winds. Apeliotes, and in the afternoon, for at that time the particuthe east wind, argestes, the south-west, olympias, lar eastern wind blows more sparingly. the north-west, seyron, the south-east, hellespon Injunction. Observe diligently the vanes and tius, the east-north-east, for these we care not. weathercocks upon the tops and towers of churchLet it suffice that we have given constant and es, whether, in extreme calms, they stand confixed names of winds, according to the order and tinually towards the west or not. disposition of the regions of the heavens: we do not set much by the comments of authors, since
An indirect experiment. the authors themselves have little in them.
4. It is certain, that here with us in Europe the eastern wind is drying and sharp; the west wind,
contrariwise, moist and nourishing. May not Free Winds.
this be by reason that it being granted that the To the sixth article.
air moves from east to west) it must of necessity 1. There is not a region of the heaven from be that the east wind, whose blast goeth the same whence the winds doth not blow. Yea, if you way, must needs disperse and attenuate the air, divide the heaven into as many regions as there whereby the air is made biting and dry; but the be degrees in the horizon, you shall find winds western wind, which blows the contrary way, sometimes blowing from every one of them. turns the airs back upon itself, and thickens it,
2. There are some whole countries where it whereby it becomes more dull, and, at length, never rains, or, at least, very seldom; but there moist. is no country where the wind doth not blow, and
An indirect experiment. that frequently.
5. Consider the inquisition of the motion and
flowing of waters, whether they move from east General Winds.
to west; for, if the two extremes, heaven and To the second article.
waters, delight in this motion, the air which is 1. Concerning general winds, experiments are in the midst will go near to participate of the plain; and it is no marvel, seeing that (especially same.