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Caulion. We call the two last experiments in-! 1. direct, because they do directly show the thing the which we aim at but by consequence, which we as th also gladly admit of when we want direct experi- or y ments.
2. Injunction. That the breeze blows plentifully over between the tropics, is most certain; the cause (tha is very ambiguous. The cause may be, because year the air moves according to the heaven; but with | sea, out the tropics almost imperceivably, by reason 3. of the smaller circles which it makes; within the neiti tropics manifestly, because it makes bigger cir- ocea cles. Another cause may be, because all kind of plac heat dilates and extends the air, and doth not suf- nor fer it to be contained in its former place; and by are i the dilatation of the air, there must needs be an win impulsion of the contiguous air which produceth 4. this breeze as the sun goes forward ; and that is con more evident within the tropics, where the sun is We more scorching ; without it, is hardly perceived. and And this seems to be an instance of the cross, or of s a decisory instance. To clear this doubt you this may inquire, whether the breeze blow in the som night or no: for the wheeling of the air continues stay also in the night, but the heat of the sun does not. sho
6. But it is most certain that the breeze doth not not blow in the night, but in the morning, and of when the morning is pretty well spent; yet that In t instance doth not determine the question, whether inqi the nightly condensation of the air (especially in due those countries where the days and nights are not wh more equal in their length than they are differing 5 in their heat and cold) may dull and confound froi that natural motion of the air, which is but weak. the
If the air participates of the motion of the heaven, it does not only follow that the east wind are concurs with the motion of the air, and the west wir wind strives against it; but also that the north dry wind blows, as it were, from above, and the south ha wind as from below here in our hemisphere, where the antarctic pole is under ground, and the abu arctic pole is elevated! which hath likewise been tha observed by the ancients, though staggeringly tim and obscurely: but it agrees very well with our modern experience, because the breeze (which an may be a motion of the air) is not a full east, but ass a north-east wind.
tbrown by the free winds. Wherefore in the Injunction. Human diligence hath almost winter they are hardly taken notice of, when the ceased and stood still in the observation of attend. free winds wander most: but are more observa- ing winds in particular places, which, notwithble in the summer, when those wandering winds standing, should not have been, that observation grow weak.
being profitable for many things. I remember, 12. In Europe these are the chief stayed winds, I asked a certain merchant, (a wise and discreet north winds from the solstice, and they are both man,) who had made a plantation in Greenland, forerunners and followers of the dogstar. West and had wintered there, why that country was so winds from the equinoctial in autumn, east winds extreme cold, seeing it stood in a reasonable tem. from the spring equinoctial; as for the winter perate climate. He said, it was not so great as it solstice, there is liule heed to be taken of it, by was reported; but that the cause was twofold: reason of the varieties.
One was, that the masses and heaps of ice which 13. The winds called ornithii, or bird winds, came out of the Scythian sea were carried thither. had that name given them because they bring The other (which he also thought to be the better birds out of cold regions beyond the sea, into reason) was because the west wind there blows warm climates; and they belong not to stayed many parts of the year, more than the east wind; winds, because they for the most part keep no as also (said he) it doth with us; but there it punctual time: and the birds, they for the con- blows from the continent, and cold, but with us venience of them, whether they come sooner or from the sea, and warmish. And (said he) if the later: and many times when they have begun to east wind should blow here in England so often blow a little, and turn, the birds being forsaken and constantly as the west wind does there, we by it, are drowned in the sea, and sometimes fall should have far colder weather, even equal to that into ships.
as is there. 14. The returns of these certain or stayed winds 6. The west winds are attendants of the pomeare not so precise at a day or an hour, as the flow-ridian or afternoon hours : for, towards the de. ing of the sea is. Some authors do set down a clining of the sun, the winds blow oftener from day, but it is rather by conjecture than any con- the east than from the west. stant observation.
7. The south wind is attendant on the night;
for it rises and blows more strongly in the night, Customary or Altending Winds.
and the north wind in the daytime. or the fourth and finh articles. Connexion.
8. But there are many and great differences The word of attending wind is ours, and we between winds which are attendant on the sea, thought good to give it, that the observation con- and those which are altendant upon the land. cerning them be not lost, nor confounded. The That is one of the chief which gave Columbus meaning is this, divide the year if you please (in occasion to find out the new world; namely, that what country soever you be) into three, four, or sea winds are not stayed, but land winds are : for five parts, and if any one certain wind blow, then the sea abounding in vapours, which are indiffertwo, three, or four of those parts, and a contrary ently everywhere, winds are also engendered inwind but one; we call that wind which blows differently everywhere, and with great inconstancy most frequently the customary, or attending wind are carried here and there, having no certain begin. of that country, and likewise of the times. nings nor sources. But the earth is much uplike
1. The south and north winds are attendants for the begetting of winds: some places are more of the world, for they, with those which are within efficacious to engender and increase winds, some their sections or divisions, blow oftener over all the less: wherefore they stand most from that part world, than either the east or the west.
where they have their nourishment, and take their 2. All the free winds (not the customary) are rise from thence. more attendant in the winter than in the summer; 9. Acosta is unconstant in his own position. but most of all in the autumn and spring. He saith that at Peru, and the sea coasts of the
3. All free winds are attendants rather in the south sea, south winds do blow almost the whole countries without the tropics, and about the polar year: and he saith in another place, that upon circles, than within: for in frozen and in torrid those coasts sea winds do blow chiefliest. But the countries, for the most part they blow more spar- south wind to them is a land wind, as likewise ingly, in the middle regions they are more fre. the north and east wind also, and the west wind quent.
is their only sea wind. We must take that which 4. Also all free winds, especially the strongest he sets down more certainly; namely, that the and most forcible of them, do blow oftener and south wind is an attending and familiar wind of more strongly, morning and evening, than at noon those countries : unless, peradventure, in the name and night.
of the south sea he hath corrupted his meaning, os 5. Free winds blow frequently in hollow places, his speech, meaning the west by the south, which and where there be caves, than in solid and firm blows from the south sea. But the sea which ground.
they call the south sea is not properly the south
sea; but as a second western ocean, being stretched | 1. out in the like situation as the Atlantic sea is. north
10. Sea winds are questionless more moist than gethe land winds, but yet they are more pure, and will ters easilier, and with more equality be incorporated when with the pure air. For terrestrial winds are ill wind composed, and smoky. Neither let any one ob- south ject, that they ought to be grosser by reason of the missi saltness of the sea. For the nature of terrestrial 2. salt doth not rise in vapours.
11. Sea winds are lukewarm or cold, by reason panio of the two foresaid qualities, humidity and pure flowe ness. For by humidity they mitigate the colds, 3. (for dryness increaseth both heat and cold,) and for a with their pureness they cool. Therefore without temp the tropics they are lukewarm, within the tropics found they are cold.
12. I believe that sea winds are everywhere attendant upon particular countries, especially such as stand upon the sea-coasts: that is to say, 4. winds blow more frequently from that side where thoug the sea is, by reason of the greater plenty of mat- prove ter which winds have in the sea, than in the land ; neith unless there be some firm wind blowing from the 5. land, for some peculiar reason. But let no man the s confound firm or stayed winds with attendant phere winds: the attendants being always more fre- the a quent; but the stayed ones for the most part from blowing more seldom. But that is common to and them both, namely, to blow from that place from most which they receive their nourishment.
from 13. Sea winds are commonly more vehement quali than land winds : yet when they cease, the sea is 6. calmer from the shores than near unto them; inso- year] much that mariners, to avoid calms, will some- more times coast along the shore, rather than launch it is into the deep.
ceive 14. Winds which are called tropei, that is to say, retorted, namely, such as, when they have and blown a little way, suddenly turn again, such highe winds I say blow from the sea towards the shore: the but retorted winds and whirlwinds are most com- have monly in gulfs of seas.
wind 15. Some small gales blow for the most part and t about all great waters, and they are most felt in a 8. morning; but more about rivers than at sea, be- befor cause of the difference which is between a land bring gale and a water gale.
16. In places which are near the sea, trees bow ful, and bend, as shunning the sea air: but that comes fair v not through any averseness to them; but sea 9. winds, by reason of their humidity and thickness, engei are as it were more heavy and ponderous.
reaso The Qualities and Powers of Winds.
draw To the seventh, twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth, thirtieth, and rainy thirty-first articles. Connexion.
have Concerning the qualities and powers of winds, notw men have made careless and various observations : some we will call out the most certain, and the rest, as 10, too light, we will leave to the winds themselves. I seem
and on the other side the north and east winds blow together, whereby they are broken and dishave some affinity between them, being cold and turbed. dry.
21. Beware of a northern wind when you sow 11. The north and south winds (whereof we seed, neither would I wish any one to inoculate have also spoken before) do blow oftener than or graft in a southern wind. the east and west winds, because there is a great 22. Leaves fall from trees soonest on the south inequality of vapours in those parts, by reason side, but vine sprouts or stalks bud forth, and of the absence and presence of the sun, but to grow most that way. the east and to the west the sun is, as it were, 23. In large pasture, shepherds must take care indifferent.
(as Pliny saith) to bring their flocks to the north 12. The south wind is very healthful when it side, that they may feed against the south. For, comes from the sea, but when it blows from the if they feed towards the north, they grow lame continent it is more unhealthful; and so, contra- i and blear-eyed, and distempered in their bellies. riwise, the north wind is suspicious blowing The northern wind, also, doth so weaken their from the sea, from the continent it is healthful.'coupling, that if they couple looking that way, Likewise, the south sea wind is very agreeable they will for the most part bring forth ewe-lambs. with plants and fruits, killing their cankers, or But Pliny doth not stand very stiffly to this rusts, and other hurtful annoyances.
opinion, having, as it were, taken it up upon 13. A gentle south wind doth assemble and trust and borrowed it. gather together clouds much, especially if it con 24. Winds are hurtful to wheat and all manner tinue but a short while; but if it blow too bois- of grain at three times, namely, at the opening terously, or long, it clouds the sky and brings in and at the falling of the flower, and when the rain. But especially when it ceases or grows grain itself is ripe, for then they blow the corn remiss, more than in its beginning, and when it out of the ear, and, at the other two times, is in its chiefest vigour.
either they blast the flower or blow it off. 14. When the south wind either begins to blow 25. While the south wind blows, men's breath or ceases, for the most part there are changes of grows ranker, all creatures' appetites decay, pesweather, from fair to cloudy, and from hot to cold, tilent diseases reign, men wax more slow and and contrariwise. The north wind many times dull. But when the wind is northwardly, men sises and ceases, the former weather remaining are more lively, healthful, and greedy after food. and continuing
Yet the northern wind is hurtful for them that are 15. After hoary frosts and long continued troubled with the phthisick, cough, gout, or any snow, there scarcely blows any other wind than other sharp defluxions. a south wind, there being, as it were, a concoc 26. An east wind is dry, piercing, and more Lion or digestion made of cold, which then at last lifying. The west wind moist, meek, and noudissolves; neither doth rain also follow; but this rishing. likewise happens in changes or intervals of fair 27. If the east wind blow when the spring is weather.
any thing forward, it is hurtful to fruits, bringing 16. The south wind rises oftener and blows in of worms and caterpillars, so that the leaves stronger in the night than in the day, especially are hardly spared : neither is it very good to in winter nights. But the north wind, if it rise grain. Contrariwise, the west wind is very proin the night, (which is contrary to its custom,) it pitious and friendly to herbs, flowers, and all dosh usually last above three days.
manner of vegetables. And so is the east wind 17. When the south wind blows, the waves too about the autumnal equinox. swell higher than when the north wind blows, 28. Western winds are more vehement than though it blows with an equal or lesser force. eastern winds, and bow and bend trees more.
18. The south wind blowing, the sea becomes 29. Rainy weather, which begins when the blue and more bright than when the north wind east wind blows, doth last longer than that which blows, which causes it to look darker and blacker. begins when a west wind blows, and may perad.
19. When the air becomes warmer on a sud- venture hold out for a whole day. den, it sometimes betokens rain; and, again, at 30. The east and north wind, when they orce other times, when on a sudden it grows colder, it begin to blow, blow more constantly; the south likewise betokens rain. But this happens ac- and west wind are more mutable. cording to the nature of the winds; for if the air 31. In an eastern wind all visible things do apgrow warm whilst the south or east wind blows, pear bigger; but in a western wind all audible there is rain at hand, and likewise when it grows things are heard further, as sounds of bells and cold during the northern or western blasts. the like.
20. The south wind blows for the most part 32. The east-north-east wind draws clouds to entire and alone. But the north wind blowing, it. It is a proverb amongst the Greeks to com. especially the east-north-east, or the north-west, pare it to usurers, who by laying out money do oftentimes contrary and various, or divers winds swallow it up. It is a vehement and large wind.
which cannot remove clouds so fast, as they will gov turn back and press upon it. Which is likewise disp seen in great fires, which grow stronger against sun the wind.
33. Cardinal or semicardinal winds are not of 1 so stormy as the median.
hat! 34. Median winds from north to north-east are the more fair, from north-east to east more stormy. and Likewise from east to south-east more fair, from 4 south-east to south more stormy. Likewise from win south to south-west more fair, from south-west to win west more stormy. Likewise from west to north- ing west more fair; from north-west to north more
hee stormy. So that, proceeding according to the can order of the heavens, the median winds of the like first halfward are always disposed to fair weather, it, : those of the latter halfward to storms and tem- they pests.
firm 35. Thunders and lightnings, and storms, with wit falling of broken clouds are, when such cold sno winds as participate of the north do blow, as the thai north-west, north-north-west, north-north-east, in 1 north-east, and east north-east. Wherefore those tim thunders likely are accompanied with hail. tior
36. Likewise snowy winds come from the 4 north, but it is from those median winds which lea are not stormy, as the north-west, and north-east, dro and by north.
for 37. Winds gain their natures and properties the five ways only: either by the absence or presence of the sun; or by agreeing or disagreeing with in the natural motion of the air; or by the diversity of the matter which feedeth them, by which they the are engendered; as sea, snow, marishes, or the sou like; or by the tincture of the countries through bei which they pass; or by their original local begin- pol nings : on high, under ground, in the middle; all the which things the ensuing articles will better de
land clare and explain.
38. All winds have a power to dry, yea, more than the sun itself, because the sun draws out the tho vapours; but if it be not very fervent, it doth not
it u disperse them; but the wind both draws them so out, and carries them away. But the south wind whi doth this least of any ; and both timber and stones mo: sweat more when the south wind blows a little, than when it is calm and lies still.
39. March winds are far more drying than summer winds; insomuch that such as make musical 1 instruments will stay for March winds to dry their thir stuff they make their instruments of, to make it tior more porous, and better sounding.
40. All manner of winds purge the air, and be cleanse it from all putrefaction, so that such years spe as are most windy, are most healthful.
lar 41. The sun is like to princes, who sometimes but having appointed deputies in some remote coun- fetc tries, the subjects there are more obsequious to the thosc deputies, and yield them more respect than the to the prince himself. And so the winds which for have their power and origin from the sun, dol afte