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three chief heads and fountains of its impulsion, sail as much as they can which is opposite against or driving forward, from whence it flows and the wind : and by that means they set in the wind derives; whence also precepts may be taken to into that part where it should blow. And this increase and strengthen it.
they do and intend. But, in the mean season, 2. The first spring comes from the quantity of this follows, (which, peradventure, they do not the wind which is received; for questionless perceive,) that the wind is more contracted, and more wind helps more than less; wherefore the strikes more sharply. quantity of wind must be carefully procured, 9. What may be added to human industry in which will be done if, like wise householders, we this, I cannot perceive, unless the figure of the be good husbands, and take care nothing be stolen sails be changed, and some sails be made which from us. Wherefore we must be very careful shall not swell round, but, like a spur or a trianthat no wind may be lost.
gle, with a mast or piece of timber in that corner 3. The wind blows either above the ships or of the top, that they may contract the wind more below them, to the very superficies and surface sharply, and cut the outward air more powerfully. of the sea; and as provident men use to look And that angle (as we suppose) must not be altomost after the least things, (for the greater no man gether sharp, but like a short obtuse triangle, can choose but look after,) so we will first look that it may have some breadth. Neither do we after these lower winds, which questionless cannot know what good it would do, if there were, as it perform so much as the higher.
were, a sail made in a sail; if, in the middle of 4. As concerning the winds which blow chiefly a greater sail, there were a kind of a purse, not about the sides of the ships, and under their sails, altogether loose, of canvass, but with ribs of it is the office of the main boarsprit-sail, which wood, which should take up the wind in the lies low and sloping, to gather them into it, that middle of the sail, and bring it into a sharpness. there may be no waste nor loss of wind; and this 10. The third fountain or original of impal. of itself does good, and hinders not the wind sion, is in the place where the wind hits, and which fills the other sails. And about this I do that is twofold; for, from the fore side of the ship not see what can be done more by the industry the impulsion is easier and stronger than on the of man, unless they should perchance fix such hinder part; and from the upper part of the mast low sails out of the middle of the ship, like and sail than from the lower part. wings or feathers, two on each side when the 11. Neither seems the industry of man to have wind blows right.
been ignorant of this, when, in a fore-wind, their 5. But, concerning the bewaring of being rob- greatest hopes have been in their foremasts, and bed, which happens when the hinder sails (in a in calms they have have not been careless in fore-right wind) steal the wind away from the hoisting up of their topsails. Neither, for the foresails, (for in a side wind all the sails are set present, do we find what may be added to human a-work,) I know not what can be added to the industry in this point, unless concerning the first care man hath already taken to prevent it, unless we should set up two or three foremasts, (the when there is a fore wind, there may be made a first upright and the rest sloping,) whose sails kind of stairs, or scale of sails, that the hinder- shall hang downward; and, as for the second, most sails of the mizzenmast may be the lowest, that the foresails should be enlarged at the top, the middle ones at the mainmast a little higher, and made less sharp than they usually are: but, the foremast, at the foremast, highest of all, that in both, we must take heed of the inconvenience one sail may not hinder but rather help the other, of danger, in sinking the ship too much. delivering and passing over the wind from one to another. And let so much be observed of the The Motion of Winds in other Engines of Man's first fountain of impulsion.
Invention. 6. The second fountain of impulsion consists 1. The motion of windmills hath no subtilty in the manner of striking the sail with the wind, at all in it; and yet, usually, it is not well ex. which, if through the contraction of the wind it plained nor demonstrated. The sails are set be acute and swift, will move more; if obtuse right and direct opposite against the wind which and languishing, less.
bloweth. One side of the sail lies to the wind, 7. As concerning this, it is of great moment, the other side by little and little bends itself, and and much to the purpose, to let the sails have a gets itself away from the wind. But the turning reasonable extension and swelling; for if they be and continuance of the motion is always caused stretched out stiff, they will, like a wall, beat by the lower part, namely, that which is farthest back the wind ; if they be too loose, there will from the wind. But the wind, overcasting itself be a weak impulsion.
against the engine, is contracted and restrained 8. Touching this, human industry hath behaved by the four sails, and is constrained to take its itself well in some things, though it was more way in four spaces. The wind doth not well by chance than out of any good judgment. For, endure that compression; wherefore, of necessity in a side wind, they gather up that part of the it must, as it were, with its elbow hit the sides VOL. III.--58
of the sails, and so turn them, even as little it whirligigs that children play withal, are turned fr with the fingers.
2 If the sails were extended even and equally, ar it would be doubtful which way the inclination w would be, as in the fall of a staff; but when the af nearer side which meets with the wind casts the violence of it upon the lower side and from w thence into distances, so that when the lower ar side receives the wind, like the palm of the hand, w or the sail of a ship's boat, presently there is a of turning on that side. But this is to be observed, sa that the beginning of the motion proceeds not ea from the first impulsion, which is direct and th abreast, but from the lateral impulsion, which is after the compression or straitening of the wind.
3. We made some proofs and trials about this, for the increasing of this motion, as well to be assured we had found the cause, as also for use; va feigning an imitation of this motion, with paper pa sails, and the wind of a pair of bellows. We, tu therefore, added to the side of the lower sail a i fold turned in from the wind, that the wind being th become a side wind might have somewhat more of to beat upon, which did no good, that fold not so much assisting the percussion of the wind, as in g consequence hindering the cutting of the air. or We placed behind the sails, at some distance, he certain obstacles as broad as the diameter of all tu the sails, that the wind being more compressed in might hit the stronger; but this did rather fo hurt than good, the repercussion dulling the pr primary motion. Then we made the sails of w a double breadth, that the wind might be the th more restrained, and there might be a stronger po lateral percussion, which at last proved very in well; so that the conversion was caused by a far milder gale, and did turn a great deal more swiftly.
Mandate. Peradventure this increase of motion w might more conveniently be made by eight sails, ra than by four, doubling the breath, unless too pr much weight did overburden the motion; which must have trial made of it.
Mandate. Likewise the length of sails doth ap much conduce to the motion. For in wheelings w a slight violence about the circumference is equivalent to a far greater about the centre. But then w this inconvenience follows, that the longer the ke sails are, the more distant they are at the top, and the wind is so much the less straitened. se Peradventure the business would go well if the w sails were a little longer and broader towards the top, like the outermost end of an oar. But this th we are not sure of.
Motion. If these experiments be made trial of in windmills, care must be taken of the wind- co mill posts, and the foundations of it; for the more bo the wind is restrained, the more it shakes (though ni
6. If before sunrising there appear some rays or dusky, or any way blemished, it signifies as forerunners, it signifies both wind and rain. stormy and tempestuous days before the full
7. If the sun at ils rising diffuses its rays moon; if it be ill coloured in the middle, temthrough the clouds, the middle of the sun re- pests will come about the full of the moon; if maining still under clouds, it shall signify rain, it be so about the upper part of the horn, they especially if those beams break out downwards, will be about the decreasing of the moon. that the sun appears as it were with a beard. 20. If at the fourth rising the moon appear But if the rays break forth out of the middle, or bright, with sharp horns, not lying flat, nor standdispersed, and its exterior body, or the out parts ing upright, but in a middle kind of posture beof it, be covered with clouds, it foreshows great tween both, it promises fair weather for the most tempests both of wind and rain.
part until the next new moon. 8. If the sun, when it rises, be encompassed 21. If at the same rising it be red, it portends with a circle, let wind be expected from that side winds; if dusky or black, rain; but, howsoever, on which the circle opens. But if the circle fall it signifies nothing beyond the full moon. off all at one time it will be fair weather.
22. An upright moon is almost always threaten9. If at the setting of the sun there appears a ing and hurtful, but it chiefly portends winds: white circle about it, it signifies some small storm but if it have blunt horns, and as it were cut off the same night; if black or darkness, much wind short, it rather signifies rain. the day following:
23. If one horn of the moon be sharp and the 10. If the clouds look red at sunrising, they other blunt, it signifies wind; if both be blunt, are prognostics of wind; if at sunsetting, of a rain. fair ensuing day.
24. If a circle or halo appear about the moon, 11. If about the rising of the sun clouds do it signifies rain rather than wind, unless the gather themselves about it, they foreshow rough moon stands directly within that circle, for then storms that day; but if they be driven back from il signifies both. the rising towards the setting of the sun, they 25. Circles about the moon always foreshow signify fair weather.
winds on that side where they break; also a no12. If at sunrising the clouds be dispersed table shining in some part of the circle, signifies from the sides of the sun, some southward, and winds from that part where the shining is. some northward, though the sky be clear about 26. If the circles about the moon be double or the sun, it foreshows wind.
treble, they foreshow horrible and rough tem13. If the sun goes down in a cloud, it fore- pests, and especially if those circles be not whole, shows rain the next day; but if it rains at sun- but spotted and divided. Setting it is a token of wind rather. But if the 27. Full moons, as concerning the colours and clouds seem to be as it were drawn towards the circles, do in a manner foreshow the same things, sun, it signifies both wind and storms.
as the fourth rising, but more present, and not so 11. If clouds at the rising of the sun seem not long delayed. to encompass it, but to lie over it, as if they were 28. Full moons use to be more clear than the about to eclipse it, they foreshow the rising of other ages of the moon, and in winter use to be winds on that side as the clouds incline. And far colder. if they do this about noon, they signify both 29. The moon appearing larger at the going wind and rain.
down of the sun, if it be splendent and not dusky, 15. If the clouds have encompassed the sun, betokens fair weather for many days. the less light they leave it, and the lesser the orb 30. Winds almost continually follow the of the sun appears, so much the more raging eclipses of the moon, and fair weather the shall the tempest be; but if there appear a double eclipses of the sun; rain comes after neither. or treble orb, as though there were two or three 31. From the conjunctions of any of the planets, suns, the tempest will be so much the more vio- but only the sun, you may expect winds both belent for many days.
fore and after; from their conjunctions with the 16. New moons presage the dispositions of the sun, fair weather. air; but especially the fourth rising of it, as if it 32. At the rising of the Pleiades and Hyades were a confirmed new moon. The full moons come showers of rain, but calm ones; after the likewise do presage more than the days which rising of Arcturus and Orion, tempests. come after.
33. Returning and shooting stars (as we call 17. By long observation the fifth day of the them) signify winds to come from that place moon is feared by mariners for stormy.
whence they run, or are shot; but if they fir 18. If the new moon do not appear before the from several, or contrary parts, it is a sign of fourth day, it foreshows a troubled air for the great approaching storms of wind and rain. whole month.
34. When such little stars as those which are 19. If the new moon, at her first appearance, called Aselli are not seen generally all over the or within a few days, have its lower horn obscure sky, it foreshows great tempests and rain within
some few days; but if they be seen in some places, and not in other some, it foreshows winds cl only, and that suddenly.
25. The sky, when it is all over bright, in a su new moon, or at the fourth rising of it, portends fair weather for many days; if it be all over dark, ag it foreshows rain; if partly dark and partly fair, cle it portends wind of that side where the darkness no is seen; but if it grow dark on a sudden, without either cloud or mist to dim the brightness of the we stars, there are great and rough tempests a- ab breeding.
36. If an entire circle encloseth a planet, or any of the greater stars, it foreshows wind; if it oth be a broken circle, winds from those parts where sig the circle is deficient.
37. When the thunder is more than the light-lo nings, there will be great winds; but if the light- m nings be thick amidst the thundering, it foreshows thick showers, with great drops.
he 38. Morning thunders signify wind; midday the thunders, rain.
the 39. Bellowing thunders, which do as it were pass along, presage winds; and those which pa make a sharp and unequal noise, presage storms both of wind and rain.
40. When it lightens in a clear sky, winds are the at hand, and rain from the part where it lightens; up but if it lightens in diverse parts, there will fol- im low cruel and horrid tempests.
41. If it lightens in the cold quarters of the set heavens, namely, the east and north, hail will der follow; if in the warmer, namely, south and for west, we shall have rain and a warm sky.
42. Great heats after the sammer solstice, and clo commonly with thunder and lightning, and if those come not, there will be wind and rain for har many days.
abc 43. The globe of flame, which the ancients no called Castor, which is seen by mariners and 년 seafaring men at
if there be but one, up presages a cruel tempest, (Castor is the dead der brother,) and much more, if it stick not close to pre the mast, but dances up and down; but if they val be twins, (and Pollux the living brother be present,) and that when the tempest is high, it is a good presage; but if there be three, (namely, if fore Helen, the plague of all things, come in,) it will sno be a more cruel tempest: so that one seems to show the indigested matter of the storm; two, a wir digested and ripe matter; three or more, an spr abundance that will hardly be dispersed.
44. If we see the clouds drive very fast when is s it is a clear sky, we must look for winds from sea that way from which the clouds are driven ; but if they wheel and tumble up together, when the pal sun draws near to that part in which they are tumbled up together, they will begin to scatter pes and sever; and if they part most towards the ing north, it betokens wind: if towards the south, of rain.
58. Coals shining bright, and sparkling over and melancholy upon the sand, or a crow walking much, signify wind.
up and down, do presage wind only. 59. When the superficies of the sea is calm and 73. Dolphins playing in a calm sea are thought smooth in the harbour, and yet murmurs within to presage wind from that way they come; and, itself, though it doth not swell, signifies wind. if they play and throw up water when the sea is
60. The shores resounding in a calm, and the rough, they presage fair weather. And most sound of the sea itself, with a clear noise, and a kinds of fishes swimming on the top of the water, certain echo, heard plainer and further than ordi- and sometimes leaping, do prognosticate wind. nary, presages winds.
74. Upon the approach of wind, swine will be 61. If, in a calm and smooth sea, we espy froth so terrified and disturbed, and use such strange here and there, or white circles or bubbles of actions, that country people say that creature only water, they are prognostics of winds ; and if these can see the wind, and perceive the horridness of it. presages be very apparent, they foreshow rough 75. A little before the wind spiders work and tempests.
spin carefully, as if they prudently forestalled the 62. If, in a rough sea, there appear a shining time, knowing that in windy weather they cannot froth, (which they call sea-lungs,) it foreshows a work. lasting tempest for many days.
76. Before rain, the sound of bells is heard 63. If the sea swell silently, and rises higher further off; but before wind it is heard more unthan ordinary within the harbour, or the tide come equally, drawing near and going further off, as it in sooner than it uses to do, it foretells wind. doth when the wind blows really.
64. Sound from the hills, and the murmur of 77. Pliny affirms for a certain, that three-leaved Woods growing louder, and a noise in open cham- grass creeps together, and raises its leaves against pion fields, portend wind. Also a prodigious a storm. murmuring of the element, without thunder, for 78. He says likewise, that vessels, which food the most part, presages winds.
is put into, will leave a kind of sweat in cupboards, 65. Leaves and straws playing on the ground, which presage cruel storms. without any breath of wind that can be felt, and Monition. Seeing rain and wind have almost a the down of plants flying about, feathers swim. common matter, and seeing always before rain ning and playing upon the water, signify that there is a certain condensation of the air, caused wind is near at hand.
by the new air received into the old, as it appears 66. Waterfowls flying at one another, and flying by the sounding of the shores, and the high flight together in flocks, especially sea-mews and gulls, of herns, and other things; and seeing the wind Aying from the sea and lakes, and hastening to likewise thickens, (but afterward in rain the air is the banks and shores, especially if they make a more drawn together, and in winds, contrariwise, noise and play upon dry land, they are prognos- it is enlarged,) of necessity winds must have many ties of winds, especially if they do so in the prognostics common with the rain. Whereof morning.
advise with the prognostics of rain, under their 67. But, contrariwise, sea-fowls going to the own title. water, and beating with their wings, chattering, and bathing themselves, especially the crow, are
Imitations of Winds. ail presages of storms.
To the three-and-thirtieth article. Connexion. 68. Duckers and ducks cleanse their feathers If men could be persuaded not to fix their conwith their bills against the wind; but geese, with templations overmuch upon a propounded subject, their importunate crying, call for rain.
and reject others, as it were, by-the-by; and that 69. A hern flying high, so that it sometimes they would not subtilize about that subject in infi. flies over a low cloud, signifies wind; but kites, nitúm, and for the most part unprofitably, they when they fiy high, foreshow fair weather. would not be seized with such a stupor as they
70. Crows, as it were, barking after a sobbing are; but, transferring their thoughts, and dismanner, if they continue in it, do presage winds, coursing, would find many things at a distance, but if they catchingly swallow up their voice which near at hand are hidden. So that, as in the again, or croak a long time together, it signifies civil law, so we must likewise in the law of that we shall have some showers.
nature, we must carefully proceed to semblable 71. A chattering owl was thought by the things, and such as have a conformity between ancients to foretell change of weather; if it were them. fair, rain; if cloudy, fair weather. But, with 1. Bellows with men are Æolus his bags, out 08, the owl making a clear and free noise, for the of which one may take as much as he needeth. most pari, signifies fair weather, especially in And likewise spaces between, and openings of winter.
hills, and crooks of buildings, are but, as it were, 72. Binis perching in trees, if they fly to their large bellows. Bellows are most useful either to nests, and give over feeding betimes, it presages kindle fire or for musical organs. The manner of tempest. But the hern, standing, as it were, sad the working of bellows is by sucking in of the air